Cottus bairdii - Girard, 1850
Mottled Sculpin
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cottus bairdii Girard, 1850 (TSN 167237)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.819868
Element Code: AFC4E02050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Scorpaeniformes Cottidae Cottus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Neely, D. A., J. D. Williams, and R. L. Mayden. 2007. Two new sculpins of the genus Cottus (Teleostei: Cottidae) from rivers of eastern North America. Copeia 2007(3):641-655.
Concept Reference Code: A07NEE01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cottus bairdii
Taxonomic Comments: Cottus bairdii as it has been used in the broad sense is a multi-species conglomerate; morphological and genetic evaluations of sculpins in the U.S. have delineated several species of Cottus once thought to be part of more broadly distributed taxa (Neely et al. 2007; Kinziger and Wood 2010; Adams et al. 2013, Lemoine et al. 2014).

Morphologically distinct populations of C. confusus and C. bairdii, with some intermediate specimens, occur near the western border of the U.S. and Canada; thorough study of species limits is needed (Peden et al. 1989).

Markle and Hill (2000) recognized populations of the C. bairdii complex in Oregon as two species, C. bendirei and C. hubbsi, but the taxonomic and geographic scope of these taxa needs further study.

Formerly included in the order Perciformes; the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) followed Nelson (1984) in recognizing the order Scorpaeniformes as distinct from the Perciformes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 06Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arizona (SNA), Colorado (S4), Delaware (S1), Georgia (S4), Idaho (S4), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S2), Kentucky (S4), Maryland (S3S4), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S4?), Missouri (S4), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (S2), Nevada (SNR), New Mexico (S1?), New York (S4), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (S4), Oregon (S4?), Pennsylvania (S5), Tennessee (S5), Utah (S4), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S4), Washington (S4), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S1), Labrador (S3S4), Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species has highly disjunct eastern and western ranges. Arctic, Atlantic, and Mississippi River basins from Labrador and northern Quebec west to western Manitoba and south to the Susquehanna River drainage, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee River drainage, northern Georgia and Alabama; Missouri River and streams in the eastern Ozarks, Missouri; isolated populations on Atlantic and Gulf slopes in the extreme upper Santee (North Carolina), Savannah (South Carolina and Goergia), and Coosa (Georgia) river systems; upper Missouri, Colorado, and Columbia river basins, Alberta to New Mexico; endorheic basins in Utah and Nevada (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is common in much of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) This species has highly disjunct eastern and western ranges. Arctic, Atlantic, and Mississippi River basins from Labrador and northern Quebec west to western Manitoba and south to the Susquehanna River drainage, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee River drainage, northern Georgia and Alabama; Missouri River and streams in the eastern Ozarks, Missouri; isolated populations on Atlantic and Gulf slopes in the extreme upper Santee (North Carolina), Savannah (South Carolina and Goergia), and Coosa (Georgia) river systems; upper Missouri, Colorado, and Columbia river basins, Alberta to New Mexico; endorheic basins in Utah and Nevada (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AZexotic, CO, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, LB, MB, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
DE Sussex (10005)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Buchanan (19019)*, Clayton (19043)*, Delaware (19055), Fayette (19065)*, Jackson (19097), Winneshiek (19191)
NM Rio Arriba (35039)*, San Juan (35045)
VT Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102), Owego-Wappasening (02050103), Tioga (02050104), Chemung (02050105), Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Sinnemahoning (02050202), Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203), Bald Eagle (02050204), Pine (02050205), Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206), Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+
03 Upper Broad (03050105), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Upper Savannah (03060103), Broad (03060104), Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104)
04 St. Louis (04010201), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Au Sable (04070007), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), St. Joseph (04100003), Tiffin (04100006), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Upper Genesee (04130002), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)*, Seneca (04140201), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Lamoille River (04150405)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Licking (05040006), Upper New (05050001), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Whitewater (05080003), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005)*, La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)*, Turkey (07060004)+*, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+*, Upper Rock (07090001), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), The Sny (07110004), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Whitewater (07140107)
10 Red Rock (10020001), Beaverhead (10020002), Ruby (10020003), Big Hole (10020004), Jefferson (10020005), Boulder (10020006), Madison (10020007), Gallatin (10020008), Upper Missouri (10030101), Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Smith (10030103), Sun (10030104), Belt (10030105), Two Medicine (10030201), Cut Bank (10030202), Marias (10030203), Willow (10030204), Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Arrow (10040102), Judith (10040103), Upper Musselshell (10040201), Milk Headwaters (10050001), Upper Milk (10050002), Big Sandy (10050005), Sage (10050006), Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001), Upper Yellowstone (10070002), Shields (10070003), Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004), Stillwater (10070005), Upper Wind (10080001), Sac (10290106), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008)
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001), Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005), Upper Gunnison (14020002), North Fork Gunnison (14020004), Lower Gunnison (14020005), Uncompahange (14020006), Upper Green (14040101), New Fork (14040102), Upper Green-Slate (14040103), Big Sandy (14040104), Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106), Blacks Fork (14040107), Muddy (14040108), Upper Yampa (14050001), Lower Yampa (14050002), Little Snake (14050003), Muddy (14050004), Upper White (14050005), Lower Green-Diamond (14060001), Duchesne (14060003), Price (14060007), San Rafael (14060009), Fremont (14070003), Escalante (14070005), Upper San Juan (14080101)+, Piedra (14080102), Animas (14080104)+, Middle San Juan (14080105)+, Mancos (14080107), Mcelmo (14080202)
16 Upper Bear (16010101), Central Bear (16010102), Bear Lake (16010201), Middle Bear (16010202), Little Bear-Logan (16010203), Lower Bear-Malad (16010204), Upper Weber (16020101), Lower Weber (16020102), Provo (16020203), Jordan (16020204), Upper Sevier (16030001)
17 Yaak (17010103), Upper Clark Fork (17010201), Blackfoot (17010203), Middle Clark Fork (17010204), North Fork Flathead (17010206), Flathead Lake (17010208), Swan (17010211), Upper Spokane (17010305)*, Hangman (17010306)*, Lower Spokane (17010307)*, Little Spokane (17010308)*, Kettle (17020002)*, Chief Joseph (17020005)*, Okanogan (17020006)*, Similkameen (17020007)*, Methow (17020008)*, Lake Chelan (17020009)*, Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)*, Wenatchee (17020011)*, Upper Yakima (17030001)*, Snake headwaters (17040101), Gros Ventre (17040102), Greys-Hobock (17040103), Palisades (17040104), Salt (17040105), Upper Henrys (17040202), Lower Henrys (17040203), Teton (17040204), Blackfoot (17040207), Portneuf (17040208), Lake Walcott (17040209), Raft (17040210), Goose (17040211), Upper Snake-Rock (17040212), Salmon Falls (17040213), Beaver-Camas (17040214), C. J. Idaho (17050101), Middle Owyhee (17050107)*, Jordan (17050108)*, North and Middle Forks Boise (17050111), Upper Malheur (17050116)*, Bully (17050118)*, Willow (17050119)*, North Fork Payette (17050123), Weiser (17050124), Burnt (17050202)*, Powder (17050203)*, Imnaha (17060102)*, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)*, Wallowa (17060105)*, Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107)*, Palouse (17060108)*, Upper Salmon (17060201), Pahsimeroi (17060202), Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203), Upper Selway (17060301), Lower Selway (17060302), Lochsa (17060303), Middle Fork Clearwater (17060304), South Fork Clearwater (17060305), Clearwater (17060306), Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307), Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101)*, Upper John Day (17070201)*, Upper Deschutes (17070301)*, Beaver-South Fork (17070303)*, Upper Crooked (17070304)*, Lower Crooked (17070305)*, Lower Deschutes (17070306)*, Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003), Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001)*, Silvies (17120002)*, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)*, Silver (17120004)*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring, the date depending on the locality. Temperature at time of spawning in New York was 10 C (Scott and Crossman 1973). Breeding season may last 2-3 months from time of nest selection to departure of young. Female spawns once per season. Male guards eggs (sometimes from multiple females); eggs hatch in 17 days at 11-13 C. Sexually mature in 2-3 years. (Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973).
Ecology Comments: Density of 2-5/sq m was recorded in two studies. Home range was estimated at less than 50 m of stream in Montana, average less than 13 m in North Carolina. In Montana, longest upstream movement was 180 m, longest downstream movement was 153 m. (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This sculpin inhabits clear, cold to warm (typically cool) headwaters, creeks, springs, small rivers, and lakes, with sand and gravel or (more typically) rocky substrate; habitat preference varies geographically; often it occurs under rocks or vegetative cover (Scott and Crossman 1973, Peden and Hughes 1984, Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). Male selects a spawning site under flat rock or ledge, in crevice among large gravel, among aquatic plants, or in tunnel (Becker 1983).

In Salt River watershed, Wyoming-Idaho, allopatric mottled sculpins (i.e., not sympatric with Paiute sculpins) occurred in spring streams that were wide and deep, dominated by fine substrate, and supported high densities of brown trout; mottled sculpins were absent from all tributaries on the eastern side of the drainage where streams had low summer water temperatures, high-gradient channels, and barriers that can influence upstream movements (Quist et al. 2004).

Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Benthic feeder; forages among rocks, mainly on immature aquatic insect larvae, especially mayflies, chironomid midges, and stoneflies; larger individuals also eat caddisflies and crayfish; crustaceans, annelids, fishes (including fish eggs) and plant material also may be eaten; may take swimming prey from water column (Scott and Crossman 1973, Becker 1983).
Phenology Comments: Most active at night in Lake Huron (Becker 1983). Prime feeding time is late evening, extending into night (Sublette et al. 1990).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Sculpins

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) are arbitrary. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Apr2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Adams, G. L., B. M. Burr, J. L. Day, and D. E. Starkey. 2013. Cottus specus, a new troglomorphic species of sculpin (Cottidae) from southeastern Missouri. Zootaxa 3609(5):484-494.

  • Andersen, M. E., and J. E. Deacon. 1996. Status of endemic non-salmonid fishes in eastern Nevada. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 29:124-133.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Bailey, J. E. 1952. Life history and ecology of the sculpin Cottus bairdi punctulatus in southwestern Montana. Copeia 1952(4):243-255.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Division of Natural Resources, Navajo Fish and Wildlife Department. 1995. Endangered Species List for The Navajo Nation.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Hill, J., and G. D. Grossman. 1987. Home range estimates for three North American stream fishes. Copeia 1987:376-380.

  • Huffaker, Steve. 1971. Upper West Fork of the Whitewater River Stream Survey Report; Wayne, Randolph, Rush, Henry, Fayette Counties. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 28 pp.

  • Hughes, G. W., and A. E. Peden. 1984. Life history and status of the shorthead sculpin (COTTUS CONFUSUS: Pisces, Cottidae) in Canada and the sympatric relationship to the slimy sculpin (COTTUS COGNATUS). Can. J. Zool. 62:306-311.

  • Hughes, G.W., and A.E. Peden. 1984. Life history and status of the shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus: Pisces, Cottidae) in Canada and the sympatric relationship to the slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Can. J. Zool. 62:306-311.

  • Kinziger, A. P., and R. M. Wood. 2010. Cottus immaculatus, a new species of sculpin (Cottidae) from the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA. Zootaxa 2340:50-64

  • Koster, W. J. 1936. The life history and ecology of the sculpins (Cottidae) in central New York. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

  • Koster, W. J. 1937. The food of the sculpin (Cottidae) in central New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 66:374-382.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Lemoine, M., M.K. Young, K.S. McKelvey, L. Eby, K.L. Pilgrim, and M.K. Schwartz. 2014. Cottus schitsuumsh, a new species of sculpin (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae) in the Columbia River basin, Idaho-Montana, USA. Zootaxa 3755(3):241-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3755.3.3

  • Ludwig, G. M. and C. R. Norden. 1969. Age, growth, and reproduction of the northern mottled sculpin, COTTUS BAIRDI BAIRDI, in Mt. Vernon Creek, Wisconsin. Occas. Pap. Nat. Hist. Milwaukee Public Mus. No. 2. 67 pp.

  • Neely, D. A., J. D. Williams, and R. L. Mayden. 2007. Two new sculpins of the genus Cottus (Teleostei: Cottidae) from rivers of eastern North America. Copeia 2007(3):641-655.

  • Neely, D.A. 2003. A systematic and taxonomic reassessment of the mottled sculpin species complex, Cottus bairdii Girard (Teleostei: Cottidae). Doctoral dissertation. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, 346 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S. 1984. Fishes of the world. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. xv + 523 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Peden, A. E., G. W. Hughes, and W. E. Roberts. 1989. Morphologically distinct populations of the shorthead sculpin, COTTUS CONFUSUS, and the mottled sculpin, COTTUS BAIRDI (Pisces, Cottidae), near the western border of Canada and the United States. Can. J. Zool. 67:2711-2720.

  • Peden, A.E., G.W. Hughes, and W.E. Roberts. 1989. Morphologically distinct populations of the shorthead sculpin, Cottus confusus, and mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi (Pisces, Cottidae), near the western border of Canada and the United States. Can. J. Zool. 67:2711-2720.

  • Peden, A.E., and G.W. Hughes. 1982. Status report of the shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus) in the Flathead River, British Columbia. B.C. Prov. Mus., Victoria. 82 pp.

  • Peden, A.E., and G.W. Hughes. 1982. Status report of the shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus) in the Flathead River, British Columbia. B.C. Prov. Mus., Victoria. 82pp.

  • Peden, A.E., and G.W. Hughes. 1984. Status of the shorthead sculpin, Cottus confusus, in the Flathead River, British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat. 98:127-133.

  • Peden, A.E., and G.W. Hughes. 1984. Status of the shorthead sculpin, Cottus confusus, in the Flathead River, British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat. 98:127-133.

  • Peden, A.E., and T. Clermont. 1989. Updated report on status of shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus) in Canada. Unpubl. rep. Royal B.C. Mus., Victoria.

  • Peden, A.E., and T. Clermont. 1989. Updated report on status of shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus) in Canada. Unpubl. rep. Royal B.C. Mus., Victoria.

  • Quist, M. C., W. A. Hubert, and D. J. Isaak. 2004. Factors affecting allopatric and sympatric occurrence of two sculpin species across a Rocky Mountain watershed. Copeia 2004:617-623.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Royal British Columbia Museum. 675 Belleville Street, Victoria, BC. V8V 1X4.

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  • Savage, T. 1963. Reproductive behavior of the mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi (Girard). Copeia 1963(2):317-325.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Species Advisory Group on Fishes. 1998. Heritage State Rank Changes Recommended by the Species Advisory Group on Fishes to the Vermont Endangered Species Committee on 26 October 1998.

  • University of British Columbia. Dep. Bot., Dep. Zool., Biol. Sci. Bldg., 6270 Univ. Blvd., Vancouver, BC.

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  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. 1996. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Progress Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 60 pp.

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  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Miller, W. H., H. M. Tyus, and C. A. Carlson. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado system: present and future. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 131 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Simpson, J. and R. Wallace. 1982. Fishes of Idaho. The University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 238 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

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