Cottus cognatus - Richardson, 1836
Slimy Sculpin
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cottus cognatus Richardson, 1836 (TSN 167232)
French Common Names: chabot visqueux
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101449
Element Code: AFC4E02080
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
Image 156

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Scorpaeniformes Cottidae Cottus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cottus cognatus
Taxonomic Comments: Includes C. PHILONIPS, C. KAGANOWSKII, and C. CHAMBERLAINI, which formerly were regarded as distinct species (Lee et al. 1980). Hybridization with C. BAIRDI may contribute to morphological variation within some populations (Lyons 1990, which see for information on morphological variation in north-central U.S.). Formerly included in the order Perciformes; the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) followed Nelson (1984) in recognizing the order Scorpaeniformes as distinct from the Perciformes.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 06Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (S5), Connecticut (S3S4), Idaho (S4), Illinois (S1?), Indiana (S2?), Iowa (S3), Maine (S4), Massachusetts (S4), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S5), New Hampshire (S4S5), New Jersey (S3), New York (S4), Pennsylvania (S5), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S2), Washington (S3), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S3S4), Manitoba (S4), New Brunswick (S5), Northwest Territories (S5), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S1?), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S5)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Medium) (26Jan2015)
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific basins of Alaska and most of Canada, south to Washington, Idaho, Montana, Iowa, St. Lawrence-Great Lakes basin, and Potomac River, Virginia; also eastern Siberia. In the north-central U.S., this species occurs primarily in three areas: Lake Superior and its tributaries, Lake Michigan, and small cold streams in the "Driftless Area" of southwestern Wisconsin, northeastern Iowa, and southeastern Minnesota (upper Mississippi River basin); between Driftless Area and Great Lakes occurs only in a few small streams and two small deep lakes, Trout and Big Green (Lyons 1990).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a very large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but quite large (greater than 100,000).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific basins of Alaska and most of Canada, south to Washington, Idaho, Montana, Iowa, St. Lawrence-Great Lakes basin, and Potomac River, Virginia; also eastern Siberia. In the north-central U.S., this species occurs primarily in three areas: Lake Superior and its tributaries, Lake Michigan, and small cold streams in the "Driftless Area" of southwestern Wisconsin, northeastern Iowa, and southeastern Minnesota (upper Mississippi River basin); between Driftless Area and Great Lakes occurs only in a few small streams and two small deep lakes, Trout and Big Green (Lyons 1990).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, MT, NH, NJ, NY, PA, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Clayton (19043)*, Delaware (19055)*, Dubuque (19061)*
VA Augusta (51015), Clarke (51043)*, Highland (51091)*
WA Chelan (53007)+, Ferry (53019)+, Pend Oreille (53051)+, Spokane (53063)+
WV Berkeley (54003), Jefferson (54037)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001), Allagash (01010002), Fish (01010003), Aroostook (01010004), Meduxnekeag (01010005), West Branch Penobscot (01020001), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Mattawamkeag (01020003), Piscataquis (01020004), Upper Kennebec (01030001), Dead (01030002), Upper Androscoggin (01040001), St. Croix (01050001), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Merrimack (01070002), Nashua (01070004), Upper Connecticut (01080101), Passumpsic (01080102), Waits (01080103), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), White (01080105), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106), West (01080107), Middle Connecticut (01080201), Miller (01080202), Deerfield (01080203), Chicopee (01080204), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Westfield (01080206), Farmington (01080207), Charles (01090001), Shetucket (01100002), Housatonic (01100005), St. Francois (01110000)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001), Sacandaga (02020002), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004)*, Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Raritan (02030105), Upper Delaware (02040101), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Lackawaxen (02040103), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102)*, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)*, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201), Sinnemahoning (02050202), Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203), Bald Eagle (02050204), Pine (02050205), Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206), Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301), Upper Juniata (02050302), Raystown (02050303), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, Shenandoah (02070007)
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202)*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Lake Michigan (04060200), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Lake Huron (04080300), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Oswegatchie (04150302), Grass (04150304), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)
07 Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Root (07040008), Flambeau (07050002), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)*, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)*, Maquoketa (07060006)+*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006)
09 Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Rainy Lake (09030003)
17 Upper Kootenai (17010101), Fisher (17010102), Yaak (17010103), Lower Kootenai (17010104), Moyie (17010105), Upper Clark Fork (17010201), Flint-Rock (17010202), Blackfoot (17010203), Middle Clark Fork (17010204), Bitterroot (17010205), North Fork Flathead (17010206), Flathead Lake (17010208), Stillwater (17010210), Swan (17010211), Lower Flathead (17010212), Lower Clark Fork (17010213), Pend Oreille Lake (17010214), Priest (17010215), Pend Oreille (17010216), Little Spokane (17010308), Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001), Kettle (17020002), Methow (17020008), Lake Chelan (17020009), Little Salmon (17060210)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawning recorded in April-May. Eggs guarded by male, hatch in about a month. Generally sexually mature in 2-3 years (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Riffle, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Typical habitats are deep oligotrophic lakes and swift rocky-bottomed streams (spring-fed streams in south). Sometimes this sculpin occurs in brackish water. It may move into lake shallows at night, into deeper water during day (often 30-100+ m deep). Eggs are laid under a rock, ledge, submerged tree root, or in similar situation in stream. Lake spawning behavior is poorly known (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly immature aquatic insects and crustaceans obtained from bottom; also eats other invertebrates, fish eggs, and plant material (Becker 1983).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Freshwater Sculpins

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) are arbitrary. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Apr2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • Koster, W. J. 1936. The life history and ecology of the sculpins (Cottidae) in central New York. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

  • Koster, W. J. 1937. The food of the sculpin (Cottidae) in central New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 66:374-382.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Lyons, J. 1990. Distribution and morphological variation of the slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) in the north central United States. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:1037-1045.

  • Nelson, J. S. 1984. Fishes of the world. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. xv + 523 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Rottiers, D. V. 1965. Some aspects of the life history of Cottus cognatus in Lake Michigan. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. M.S. Thesis. 49 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Simpson, J. and R. Wallace. 1982. Fishes of Idaho. The University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 238 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Whitworth, W. R., P. L. Berrien, and W. T. Keller. 1976. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Bulletin of the Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 101. vi + 134 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.