Corvus corax - Linnaeus, 1758
Common Raven
Other English Common Names: common raven
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 179725)
French Common Names: grand corbeau
Spanish Common Names: Cuervo Común
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103734
Element Code: ABPAV10110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
Image 11130

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Corvidae Corvus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Corvus corax
Taxonomic Comments: May constitute a superspecies with C. ruficollis of the Old World (AOU 1998).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (09Mar2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SX), Alaska (S5), Arizona (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S4B), Georgia (S2), Idaho (S5), Illinois (SX), Indiana (SXB), Kentucky (S1S2), Maine (S5), Maryland (S3S4), Massachusetts (S4), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SX), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (S5), Nebraska (SXB,S1N), Nevada (S5), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S4B), New Mexico (S5B,S5N), New York (S4), North Carolina (S3), North Dakota (SU), Ohio (SX), Oklahoma (S1), Oregon (S5), Pennsylvania (S4), South Carolina (S4), South Dakota (SX), Tennessee (S2), Texas (S3B), Utah (S5), Vermont (S3), Virginia (S4), Washington (S5), West Virginia (S4B,S4N), Wisconsin (S4B), Wyoming (S5B,S5N)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S5), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S5), Northwest Territories (S5), Nova Scotia (S5), Nunavut (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Resident from northernmost North America south to southern Baja California, Nicaragua, Texas, and, east of Rockies, southern Saskatchewan, northeastern Minnesota, northern Michigan, southern New England (Flanagan 1993), and in Appalachians, locally south to northern Georgia. Also in Greenland, Iceland, North Africa, Europe, and Asia.

Short-term Trend Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate a significant population increase in North America between 1966 and 1989 (Droege and Sauer 1990).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Resident from northernmost North America south to southern Baja California, Nicaragua, Texas, and, east of Rockies, southern Saskatchewan, northeastern Minnesota, northern Michigan, southern New England (Flanagan 1993), and in Appalachians, locally south to northern Georgia. Also in Greenland, Iceland, North Africa, Europe, and Asia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, ALextirpated, AZ, CA, CO, CT, GA, ID, ILextirpated, INextirpated, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MOextirpated, MT, NC, ND, NEextirpated, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OHextirpated, OK, OR, PA, SC, SDextirpated, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACE TM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Litchfield (09005), New Haven (09009), New London (09011), Windham (09015)
ID Ada (16001), Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Butte (16023), Camas (16025), Cassia (16031), Clark (16033), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Lincoln (16063), Owyhee (16073), Shoshone (16079), Teton (16081), Valley (16085)
KY Bell (21013), Breathitt (21025), Harlan (21095), Johnson (21115), Knott (21119), Letcher (21133), Martin (21159), Morgan (21175), Perry (21193)
OK Cimarron (40025)*
TN Carter (47019), Greene (47059), Hawkins (47073)*, Johnson (47091), Marion (47115)*, Monroe (47123), Sevier (47155), Sullivan (47163), Unicoi (47171), Washington (47179)
WY Sublette (56035)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Shetucket (01100002)+, Thames (01100003)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
05 Tug (05070201)+, Lower Levisa (05070203)+, North Fork Kentucky (05100201)+, Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Watauga (06010103)+, Holston (06010104)+*, Lower French Broad (06010107)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+, Powell (06010206)+, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+*
11 Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+*, Upper Cimarron (11040002)+*
14 Upper Green (14040101)+
16 Middle Bear (16010202)+, Curlew Valley (16020309)+
17 Priest (17010215)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Medicine Lodge (17040215)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Weiser (17050124)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Upper Middle Fork Salmon (17060205)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: See Heinrich (1994, Wilson Bull. 106:571-572) for information on distinguishing juveniles and adults using plumage characteristics.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 3-7 (usually 3-6). Incubation is entirely or mostly by female (fed by male), 18-21 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest in 5-6 weeks. When food supply is limited, smallest chick often does not survive. Young remain with parents for several weeks after fledging.
Ecology Comments: May roost communally in groups of up to several hundred individuals (e.g., see Wilson Bull. 104:105-121).

Home range size of breeding birds was 0.2-4.4 square kilometers in coastal California, where ranges of nesting pairs sometimes overlapped; breeding season home range averaged 6.6 square kilometers in Utah, 9.4 square kilometers in Wyoming (see Linz et al. 1992). Territories in Minnesota were much larger, averaging 40.5 square kilometers (Bruggers 1998).

Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Basically sedentary, but some migration has been reported for birds in the most northern part of the range.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Tidal flat/shore
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Tundra, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Various situations from lowlands to mountains, open country to forested regions, and humid regions to desert; most frequently in hilly or mountainous areas, especially in vicinity of cliffs (AOU 1983). Closely associated with humans along Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska (Johnson and Herter 1989).

Nests usually on cliff ledges or in coniferous trees, also on man-made structures. See White and Tanner-White (1988) for information on the use of highway overpasses and billboards for nesting in Idaho and Utah. Often reuses nests in successive years.

Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Opportunistic; in some areas, largely a scavenger on various animals; also commonly eats bird eggs and young, rodents, some fruits, cereal grains, insects.
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Length: 61 centimeters
Weight: 1240 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of breeding (including historical); and potential recurring breeding at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary and is not intended to establish occurrences that represent discrete populations. Instead, it attempts to balance the high mobility of these birds against the need for occurrences of practical size for conservation purposes. Separation distance is based on nest sites; nest sites separated by a gap that is less than the separation distance represent the same occurrence.

Common raven "territories" or "domains" (Boarman and Heinrich 1999) are quite variable. They range from a median of 5.1 square kilometers in coastal California (Linz et al. 1992) to a mean of 40.5 square kilometers in Minnesota (Bruggers 1988). The latter would give a circular diameter of 7.2 kilometers.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Territories where food resources are plentiful are relatively small; in coastal California the median is 5.1 square kilometers (n = 5; Linz et al. 1992), which gives a circle with a radius of 1.3 kilometers.
Date: 28Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S. and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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