Coregonus artedi - Lesueur, 1818
Cisco
Other English Common Names: Cisco Herring, Lake Herring
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Coregonus artedi Lesueur, 1818 (TSN 623384)
French Common Names: cisco de lac
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104933
Element Code: AFCHA01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Salmon and Trouts
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Salmoniformes Salmonidae Coregonus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Coregonus artedi
Taxonomic Comments: In recent years, C. nipigon (Koelz) has been regarded as a junior synonym of C. artedi (Scott and Crossman 1973, Robins et al. 1991). Etnier and Skelton (2003) reasoned that C. nipigon should be recognized as a species distinct from C. artedi; along the Minnesota/Ontario border, they found C. artedi in Lake Saganaga, Gunflint and Magnetic lakes, and Lake Saganagons, and they found what they referred to as C. nipigon in Lake Saganaga and Lake Saganagons. They cited previous reports of C. nipigon from Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Lake Abitibi and Lac Seul, Ontario. They also noted that Clarke (1973) suggested, based on rather small samples, that a form with gill-raker counts similar to those of C. nipigon also occurs in Little Athapapuskow Lake and Mink Narrows, both located north of the Manitoba Great Lakes near the Saskatchewan border.

Coregonus hubbsi is included in C. artedi by most authorities (e.g., Nelson et al. 2004), but it was listed as a distinct species by Hubbs and Lagler (2004).

Spring and fall spawning populations in the Lake Superior drainage basin differ morphologically from each other (see Henault and Fortin 1991).

See Turgeon and Bernatchez (2001) for genetic information that reveals historical secondary intergradation between two glacial races of C. artedi; an eastern (Atlantic) race evidently expanded in a stepwise fashion into a previously established Mississippian race.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 23Aug2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widely distributed across Canada and into the Great Lakes region and upper Mississippi basin of the U.S.; secure in Canada, has declined in Great Lakes region, due to impacts of introduced fishes.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,NUM (28Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S1?), Indiana (S2), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (SNA), New York (S3), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), Vermont (S4), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S2), Manitoba (S5), Northwest Territories (S4S5), Nunavut (S5B,SNRN,SNRM), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:E
Comments on COSEWIC: The Spring Cisco population is designated Endangered.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is widespread in Canada and the northern United States in the Atlantic and Arctic basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories and south to the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and upper Mississippi River basins, northern Ohio, Illinois, and Minnesota; introduced elsewhere (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by hundreds of occurrences (subpopulations, mostly in Canada (Lee et al. 1980). Smith (1985) mapped New York collection sites that would translate into at least two dozen distinct occurrences, but he did not comment on current status.

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000. Historically this has been the most productive commercial species in the Great Lakes" (Becker 1983). Evidently an important commercial species in Lake Michigan until the late 1940s; very rare in the Illinois part of Lake Michigan since then (Smith 1979). Common to abundant in inland lakes in northern Wisconsin, rare to extirpated in Madison area lakes and in several other lakes in Waukesha County (Becker 1981).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species declined in Lake Michigan likely because of heavy exploitation and local pollution (Becker 1983) or predation by sea lamprey. After lamprey control, lake herring were still impacted by competition with bloater and introduced alewife (Smith 1979, Becker 1983, Herkert 1992). Mid-1920s decline in Lake Erie was attributed to overfishing or "unfavorable environmental factors" (see Trautman 1981). Selgeby et al. (1978) concluded that neither predation nor competition are factors presently limiting the population in southwestern Lake Superior. Competition with rainbow smelt may explain decline of C. artedi in Lake Saganaga (Etnier and Skelton 2003). Eutrophication is the greatest threat to populations in inland lakes (Becker 1983). Hybridization with C. hoyi may impede recovery of this species in Lake Huron (Todd and Stedman 1989).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Evidently stable in most of range over the past 10 years or three generations.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: This species declined historically in the Great Lakes region. "Endangered in Lakes Ontario and Erie, rare in Lake Huron, declining and possibly threatened in Lake Michigan, and declining in Lake Superior (Todd 1978, Parsons et al. 1975)" (Becker 1983). This fish formerly was tremendously abundant in Lake Erie; after 1885 there was a continuous, although fluctuating, decline through at least 1980 (Trautman 1981).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is widespread in Canada and the northern United States in the Atlantic and Arctic basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories and south to the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and upper Mississippi River basins, northern Ohio, Illinois, and Minnesota; introduced elsewhere (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IL, IN, MI, MN, MTexotic, NY, OH, PA, VT, WI
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IL Cook (17031)*, Lake (17097)*, Putnam (17155)*
IN Elkhart (18039), Fulton (18049)*, Kosciusko (18085), Lagrange (18087), Marshall (18099), Noble (18113), Steuben (18151), Whitley (18183)
MI Alcona (26001), Alger (26003), Allegan (26005), Alpena (26007)*, Antrim (26009), Baraga (26013), Barry (26015), Benzie (26019), Berrien (26021), Branch (26023)*, Cass (26027), Charlevoix (26029), Cheboygan (26031), Chippewa (26033), Crawford (26039)*, Dickinson (26043)*, Emmet (26047)*, Gogebic (26053), Grand Traverse (26055), Hillsdale (26059), Houghton (26061), Huron (26063)*, Iosco (26069), Iron (26071), Jackson (26075), Kalamazoo (26077)*, Kalkaska (26079), Kent (26081), Keweenaw (26083), Leelanau (26089), Livingston (26093)*, Luce (26095), Mackinac (26097), Manistee (26101)*, Marquette (26103), Montmorency (26119)*, Newaygo (26123)*, Oakland (26125), Ontonagon (26131), Ottawa (26139), Presque Isle (26141), Roscommon (26143)*, Schoolcraft (26153), St. Joseph (26149), Van Buren (26159), Washtenaw (26161)
OH Lake (39085), Lucas (39095)*, Ottawa (39123)*
PA Erie (42049)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001)*, Sacandaga (02020002)*, Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)*, Chenango (02050102)
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)*, Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102)+, Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103)+, Dead-Kelsey (04020105)+, Betsy-Chocolay (04020201)+, Waiska (04020203)+, Lake Superior (04020300)+, Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Menominee (04030108)+*, Cedar-Ford (04030109), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201)*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102)+*, Manistee (04060103)+, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+, Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105)+, Manistique (04060106)+, Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+, Lake Michigan (04060200)+, St. Marys (04070001)+, Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004)+, Black (04070005)+, Thunder Bay (04070006)+, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+, Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Tittabawassee (04080201), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Lake Huron (04080300)+, Clinton (04090003)+, Huron (04090005)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Lake Erie (04120200)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Upper Genesee (04130002)*, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102)*, Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202)*, Black (04150101)*, Lake Ontario (04150200)*, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)*, Indian (04150303)*, Raquette (04150305)*, English-Salmon (04150307)*
05 Conewango (05010002)*, Eel (05120104)+*, Tippecanoe (05120106)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001)*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Upper Rock (07090001), Kankakee (07120001)+, Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+*
09 Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Generally a fall spawner; spring spawning populations are known in Lac des Ecorces, Quebec (mid-May to early June), and in the Lake Superior drainage (which also has a fall spawning population) (Henault and Fortin 1991). Sexually mature usually in 3-6 years (at age 3 in Lac des Ecorces).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes open waters of lakes and large rivers; coastal waters of Hudson Bay (Page and Burr 1991). Individuals move into deeper water, to just below thermocline, in summer. Sometimes this fish occurs in large rivers. Spawning often occurs in shallow water (1-3 meters deep) over gravel or stony substrate, but also may occur pelagically in midwater (Great Lakes). Eggs usually are deposited on the bottom. Spring spawners in Lac des Ecorces, Quebec, deposited eggs in the deeper section (>20 meters) of the lake (Henault and Fortin 1991).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly zooplankton; also invertebrates from surface, fish eggs and fry.
Length: 48 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Nonanadromous Salmonids

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Spawning Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Conceptually, the occurrence includes the entire area used by the population, including spawning, rearing, migration, and wintering areas. Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat (see separation justification) to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Separation distance is 10 stream-km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat. However, if it is known that the same population occupies sites separated by more than 10 km (e.g., this may be common for migratory populations), those sites should be included within the same occurrence. In lakes, occurrences include all suitable habitat that is presumed to be occupied (based on expert judgment), even if documented collection/observation points are more than 10 km apart. Separate sub-occurrences or source features may usefully document locations of critical spawning areas within a lake.

Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary; little is known about juvenile dispersal (e.g., how far fishes may move between between their embryonic developmental habitat and eventual spawning site). "Restricted movement is the norm in populations of stream salmonids during nonmigratory periods," but there is considerable variation in movements within and among species (Rodriguez 2002).

Migrations can be extensive. For example, in the Kennebecasis River, New Brunswick, brook trout moved upstream 65-100 km in spring after ice loss; summer movements were minimal; movements to spawning areas in fall were less than 10 km, then the fish moved back downstream to wintering areas in the lower to middle reaches of the river (Curry et al. 2002).

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 11Mar2003
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Apr2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anderson, E.D. and L.L. Smith, Jr. 1971a. Factors affecting abundance of lake herring Coregonus artedii (Lesueur) in western Lake Superior. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 100(4):691-707.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Clarke, R.M. 1973. The systematics of ciscoes (Coregonidae) in central Canada.

  • DeGisi, J.S. 1999. Reconnaissance (1:20 000) Fish and Fish Habitat Inventory of Maxhamish Lake (Watershed Code 211-107100-34800-01). BC Parks, Fort St. John

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

  • Direction générale de la faune. 1978. Liste des poissons d'eau douce du Québec. Ministère du Tourisme, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 4

  • Dryer, W.R. 1966. Bathymetric distribution of fish in the Apostle Islands region, Lake Superior. Amer. Fish. Soc. Trans. 95:248-259.

  • Dryer, W.R., and J. Beil. 1964. Life history of the lake herring in Lake Superior. U.S. Fish Wildl. Ser. Bull. 63(3): 493-530.

  • Duncan, J.R. 1997. Conservation Status Ranks of the Fishes of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 97-02. Winnipeg, MB. 10 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and C. E. Skelton. 2003. Analysis of three cisco forms (Coregonus, Salmonidae) from Lake Saganaga and adjacent lakes near the Minnesota/Ontario border. Copeia 2003:739-749.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

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  • Hatch, J. T. 1984. Some aspects of the early life history of Lake Herring (Coregonus artedii) in western Minnesota. Final Report. 41 pp. Part of compilation of publications submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources by Hatch.

  • Henault, M., and R. Fortin. 1991. Early life stages, growth, and reproduction of spring-spawning ciscoes (COREGONUS ARTEDII) in Lac des Ecorces, Quebec. Can. J. Zool. 69:1644-1652.

  • Henault, M., and R. Fortin. 1992. Status report on the spring cisco Coregonus artedi ssp. in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 17 pp.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

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  • Legendre V. 1952. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Office de biologie. 84 pages + illustrations.

  • Legendre V. 1954. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Deuxième édition. Société canadienne d'écologie. Université de Montréal. Ministère de la Chasse et de la Pêche.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

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  • Newell, A.J. 1976. The relationship of age, growth, and food habits to the relative success of the whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, and the cisco, C. artedii, in Otsego Lake, New York. Occas. Pap. Biol. Field Sta. (Cooperstown, N.Y.) 2, vii + 68 pp

  • Nielsen, J. L., editor. 1995. Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem: defining unique units in population conservation. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17, Bethesda, Maryland. xii + 435 pp.

  • O'Donnell, D.J. 1935. Annotated list of the fishes of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:473-500.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 432pp.

  • Parsons, J. W., T. Todd, and L. Emery. 1975. The status of some endemic fishes of the Great Lakes based upon changes in abundance. Unpublished report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Lakes Fish. Lab, Ann Arbor. 6 pp.

  • Peters, C.E. and G.W. LaBar. 1980. Fecundity of an unexploited population of ciscoes in three areas of Lake Champlain. N. Y. Fish Game. J. 27(1): 72-78.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Rodriguez, M. A. 2002. Restricted movement in stream fish: the paradigm is complete, not lost. Ecology 83(1):1-13.

  • Scott W.B. et E.J. Crossman. 1974. Poissons d'eau douce du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement. Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer. Office des recherches sur les pêcherires du Canada. Bulletin 184. 1026 p.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

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  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

  • Selgeby, J. H., W. R. MacCallum, and D. V. Swedberg. 1978. Predation by rainbow smelt (OSMERUS MORDAX) on lake herring (COREGONUS ARTEDII) in Lake Superior. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35(11):1457-1463.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

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  • Todd, T. N., and R. M. Stedman. 1989. Hybridization of ciscoes (COREGONUS spp.) in Lake Huron. Can. J. Zool. 67:1679-1685.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

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  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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