Corallorhiza maculata - (Raf.) Raf.
Spotted Coralroot
Other English Common Names: Summer Coralroot
Other Common Names: summer coralroot
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
French Common Names: corallorhize maculée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135812
Element Code: PMORC0M010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Corallorhiza
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Corallorhiza maculata
Taxonomic Comments: Spelling of genus with one 'r' (Corallorhiza) has been conserved; see Taxon 48(2):363 (May, 1999) for more information (pers. comm. John Kartesz, Aug. 1999).
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Jan2016
Global Status Last Changed: 29Feb1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (12Jan2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S4), California (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SH), Georgia (SH), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (S1), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S1), Kentucky (S1), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S4), Nebraska (S1), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), New York (SNR), North Carolina (S2), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S3), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S1), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S1), Texas (SNR), Utah (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S4?), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Alberta (S3), British Columbia (SNR), Manitoba (S4), New Brunswick (S3S4), Newfoundland Island (S3S4), Nova Scotia (S4), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S2), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S4S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Somewhat threatened by land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Clayton (19043), Delaware (19055), Dubuque (19061)*, Winneshiek (19191)*
IL Cook (17031)*, DuPage (17043), Kane (17089)*, Mchenry (17111)*, Peoria (17143), Pike (17149), Rock Island (17161), Will (17197)*, Winnebago (17201)
KY Harlan (21095)
NC Buncombe (37021)*, Haywood (37087)*, Henderson (37089)*, Jackson (37099), Macon (37113)*, McDowell (37111), Transylvania (37175), Watauga (37189)*, Yancey (37199)
NE Dawes (31045), Scotts Bluff (31157), Sheridan (31161), Sioux (31165)
OH Ashland (39005)*, Ashtabula (39007), Cuyahoga (39035), Delaware (39041), Erie (39043)*, Geauga (39055), Huron (39077), Lake (39085), Lorain (39093)*, Mahoning (39099), Pickaway (39129)*, Portage (39133), Richland (39139), Scioto (39145), Stark (39151), Summit (39153), Wayne (39169)
RI Kent (44003)*, Providence (44007), Washington (44009)
TN Carter (47019), Cocke (47029), Scott (47151), Unicoi (47171)
VA Albemarle (51003)
WV Pocahontas (54075), Randolph (54083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+*, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+
02 Rivanna (02080204)+
03 Upper Catawba (03050101)+
04 Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)+
05 Tygart Valley (05020001)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Upper New (05050001)+*, Gauley (05050005)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+
06 Watauga (06010103)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+*, Tuckasegee (06010203)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+*
07 Root (07040008)+*, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Sugar (07090004)+*, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Kishwaukee (07090006)+*, Chicago (07120003)+*, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+*, Lower Fox (07120007)+*, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Lower Illinois (07130011)+
10 Hat (10120108)+, Upper White (10140201)+, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+*, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+*, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Arditti, J., J.D. Michaud, and P.L. Healey. 1980. Morphometry of orchid seeds. II. Native California and related species of Calypso, Cephalanthera, Corallorhiza and Epipactis. American Journal of Botany 67(3): 347-360.

  • Brown, P.M. 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 236 pp.

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

  • Correll, D.S. 1950 [1978]. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 400 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Freudenstein, J.V. 1987. A preliminary study of Corallorhiza maculata (Orchidaceae) in eastern North America. Contributions to the University of Michigan Herbarium 16: 145-153.

  • Freudenstein, J.V. 1997. A monograph of Corallorhiza (Orchidaceae). Harvard Papers in Botany 10:5-51.

  • Freudenstein, J.V. and J.J. Doyle. 1994. Plastid DNA, morphological variation, and the phylogenetic species concept: the Colallorhiza maculata (Orchidaceae) complex. Systematic Botany 19(2): 273-290.

  • Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. The New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Morris, F. and E.A. Eames. 1929. Our Wild Orchids. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 464 pp.

  • Mousley, H. 1925. Corallorrhiza maculata and its varieties in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 39: 95-96.

  • Reddoch, J.M. and A.H. Reddoch. 1997. The orchids in the Ottawa District: floristics, phytogeography, population studies and historical review. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(1):1-185.

  • Smith, W.R. 1993. Orchids of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 172 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario. xii + 169 pp.

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