Coptis trifolia - (L.) Salisb.
Goldthread
Other English Common Names: Threeleaf Goldthread
Other Common Names: threeleaf goldthread
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. (TSN 18767)
French Common Names: savoyane
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154777
Element Code: PDRAN0A040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buttercup Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ranunculales Ranunculaceae Coptis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Coptis trifolia
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 29Feb1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This widespread species is relatively frequent in the northern portion of its large, generally boreal range. It is sensitive to ecological disturbance and is sometimes collected from the wild for medicinal use. Given the large range for this species, it is estimted that there are 300+ occurrences, more than 100,000 plants worldwide, and at least 13 protected sites, if not more than 40.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (05Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (SNR), Oregon (S1), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Washington (S1), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S3), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S5), Manitoba (S4S5), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S5), Nova Scotia (S5), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Coptis trifolia occurs from Greenland across North America to Alaska, including most of Canada and the eastern U.S. C. trifolia also occurs in northeast Asia to northern Japan (Kartesz and Meachum 1999, M. Stein (BLM) 1998). There are two disjunct populations in western United States, in the states of Washington and Oregon.

Area of Occupancy: 2,501 to >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Coptis trifolia is considered common in Canada, its main North American range. It is considered rare in Oregon where it has been designated as a sensitive species (pers. comm. J. Kagan, December 2001). This species is more frequent in western than eastern British Columbia (Douglas et al. 1990). In the eastern U.S., Coptis trifolia is rare in North Carolina, but reportedly more common in the northeast (Rhoads and Block 2000).

Population Size Comments: In Oregon, there is 6100+ plants reported (ORNHIC 2002). Given the large range for this species, it is easily assumed that there should be more than 100,000 plants worldwide.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Many activities pose a threat to this understory species, such as logging, hydrologic change, soil disturbance and possibly high intensity fires; this species is collected to a certain extent for medicinal use, but collection probably does not pose a significant threat at this time across its range. Populations in Oregon, and perhaps other regions in western North America are relatively rare, so collecting in these areas could be detrimental to local populations. A related Asian species, Coptis sinensis, is cultivated for commercial use (Tilford 1998).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species grows in wet areas, seeps, along creeks, depressions in mainly coniferous forest.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Coptis trifolia occurs from Greenland across North America to Alaska, including most of Canada and the eastern U.S. C. trifolia also occurs in northeast Asia to northern Japan (Kartesz and Meachum 1999, M. Stein (BLM) 1998). There are two disjunct populations in western United States, in the states of Washington and Oregon.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CT, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, VT, WA, WI, WV
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Anne Arundel (24003)*, Baltimore (city) (24510)*, Baltimore County (24005)*, Frederick (24021), Garrett (24023), Howard (24027)*, Montgomery (24031)*, Prince Georges (24033)*
NC Ashe (37009)
OR Clackamas (41005), Wasco (41065)
WA Clallam (53009)
WV Grant (54023), Pendleton (54071), Pocahontas (54075), Preston (54077), Randolph (54083), Tucker (54093)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+*, Patuxent (02060006)+*, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Monocacy (02070009)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+
17 Lower Deschutes (17070306)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+, Clackamas (17090011)+, Hoh-Quillayute (17100101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Nov2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Vrilakas, Sue

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Cody, W.J. 1988. Plants of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1818/E, Ottawa ON.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, editors. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. Volume 3. Dicotyledons (Diapensiaceae through Onagraceae). British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 4, Dicotyledons (Orobanchaceae through Rubiaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 427pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1929. Coptis trifolia and its eastern American representative. Rhodora 31: 136-142

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Punter, E. 1994. Inventory and annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Manitoba Model Forest. Project 93-2-6.

  • Rhoads, A.F. and T.A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania: An Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1061 pp.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Tilford, G. L. 1998. From Earth to Herbalist. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana.

  • Vance, N.C., M. Borsting and D. Pilz. 2001. Special forest products species information guide for Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-XX.

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