Condylura cristata - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Star-nosed Mole
Other English Common Names: star-nosed mole
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Condylura cristata (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 179964)
French Common Names: condylure à nez étoilé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102048
Element Code: AMABB05010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
Image 10854

© Michael Patrikeev

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Soricomorpha Talpidae Condylura
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Condylura cristata
Taxonomic Comments: Includes C. PARVA as a subspecies (Hutterer, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Common over large range in southeastern Canada and the eastern U.S.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (31Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S4), District of Columbia (S3), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S2?), Indiana (S2?), Maine (S5), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S4), New York (S5), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S3), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S4), South Carolina (S3?), Tennessee (S2), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Labrador (S3), Manitoba (S3), New Brunswick (S5), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Primarily distributed in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Labrador, Quebec, and Nova Scotia westward to eastern North Dakota and southeastern Manitoba, and south to Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio, south in the Appalachians to the Great Smoky Mountains (e.g., Beane 1995, Brimleyana 22:77-86), and south along the Atlantic coast to southeastern Georgia. Ranges farther north than all other native mole species.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Primarily distributed in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Labrador, Quebec, and Nova Scotia westward to eastern North Dakota and southeastern Manitoba, and south to Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio, south in the Appalachians to the Great Smoky Mountains (e.g., Beane 1995, Brimleyana 22:77-86), and south along the Atlantic coast to southeastern Georgia. Ranges farther north than all other native mole species.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada LB, MB, NB, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005; Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Charlton (13049)*, Effingham (13103)*, Jackson (13157)*, Rabun (13241), Towns (13281), Union (13291)*
IN Elkhart (18039), Fulton (18049), Kosciusko (18085)*, La Porte (18091), Lagrange (18087), Noble (18113), St. Joseph (18141), Steuben (18151), Wabash (18169)
NC Bladen (37017), Brunswick (37019), Columbus (37047), Craven (37049), Cumberland (37051), Dare (37055), Hoke (37093), Mecklenburg (37119)*, Moore (37125), New Hanover (37129)*, Pitt (37147), Randolph (37151), Richmond (37153)*, Robeson (37155)*, Sampson (37163), Scotland (37165)*, Wake (37183), Washington (37187)*
OH Coshocton (39031), Cuyahoga (39035), Portage (39133), Summit (39153), Trumbull (39155)
SC Aiken (45003), Barnwell (45011), Charleston (45019), Chesterfield (45025)*, Colleton (45029)*, Darlington (45031), Dorchester (45035)*, Florence (45041), Georgetown (45043)*, Greenville (45045), Pickens (45077)*, Richland (45079)
TN Carter (47019), Johnson (47091), Monroe (47123)*, Sevier (47155)*, Unicoi (47171)
WV Preston (54077)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Albemarle (03010205)+, Lower Tar (03020103)+, Pamlico (03020104)+*, Upper Neuse (03020201)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, New River (03020302)+*, Deep (03030003)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Black (03030006)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Upper Pee Dee (03040104)+, Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105)+*, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+*, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207)+*, Saluda (03050109)+, Congaree (03050110)+, Cooper (03050201)+, Four Hole Swamp (03050206)+*, Seneca (03060101)+*, Tugaloo (03060102)+, Broad (03060104)+*, Middle Savannah (03060106)+, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+*, Upper Oconee (03070101)+*, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+
05 Upper Monongahela (05020003)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Eel (05120104)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Watauga (06010103)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+*, Lower French Broad (06010107)+*, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+*, Tuckasegee (06010203)+*, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+*, Hiwassee (06020002)+*, Ocoee (06020003)+*
07 Kankakee (07120001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: An unmistakable blackish -rown to black mole with a circle of 22 large fleshy appendages at the tip of the snout; eyes are small but visible; ears are barely evident; sparsely haired tail is constricted at the base; palms of forefeet are about as broad as they are long; head-body length is 100-127 mm; tail length is 56-84 mm; adult mass is 40-85 g (Nowak 1991).
Reproduction Comments: Gestation lasts about 45 days. Parturition occurs in spring or early summer (late March-early August in central New York). Litter size is 3-7, average 5-6. One litter per year. Sexually mature in 10 months. May maintain pair bond throughout the breeding season.
Ecology Comments: Home range probably is about 0.4 ha (Banfield 1974). Density of 4-7 per ha has been recorded for swampland (Hamilton 1931). In New York, 2-3 per ha were found during winter. Gregarious.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Seldom far from bodies of water. Prefers wet soils in flood plains, swamps, meadows, and other openings near water. Good swimmer and diver. May be active in water under ice in winter. More dependent on water in winter when ground is frozen. Occasionally occurs in leaf mold on the floor of dense forests. Tunnels may be shallow or deep and may open at ground surface or under water.

Nest usually is placed in a hummock, under a stump or log, in humus among rotten tree roots, or in other areas above high water, often near a stream.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: In some areas eats mainly aquatic invertebrates; benthic prey may constitute entire winter diet. Earthworms are abundant in the diet in some areas (Peterson and Yates 1980). May use an electrical sense to detect prey (Gould et al., 1993, J. Mamm. 74:108-116).
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Active all year. Active day or night; may be more active at night.
Length: 21 centimeters
Weight: 75 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Moles

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major rivers; arbitrarily set at rivers wider than 50 meters at low water. However, some moles are relatively strong, active swimmers; most notably the Star-nosed Mole, CONDYLURA CRISTATA.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: Although home ranges of moles are relatively small, dispersal distances can be surprisingly large. Maximum documented dispersal distances for young Scapanus townsendii were 0.72 kilometers (males) and 0.86 kilometers (females) (see Carraway et al. 1993). Some dispersers crossed roads, but dispersal distance was largest in suitable habitat. Since documented distances surely underestimate actual dispersal patterns, these data suggest that the separation distance for suitable habitat should be greater than 1 km. Despite the fossorial habits of moles, it seems unlikely that locations separated by a gap of less than a few kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.


Home ranges: for SCAPANUS ORARIUS, average for males 0.12 hectares, average for females 0.15 to 0.35 hectares (Hartman and Yates 1985); for CONDYLURA CRISTATA, about 0.4 hectares (Nowak 1991).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G. and S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Apr1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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