Coluber constrictor - Linnaeus, 1758
North American Racer
Other English Common Names: Eastern Racer, North American racer, Racer
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 174169)
French Common Names: couleuvre agile
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103328
Element Code: ARADB07010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Snakes
Image 10691

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Colubridae Coluber
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Coluber constrictor
Taxonomic Comments: Crother et al. (in Crother 2008, 2012) cited published studies in transferring all Masticophis species to the genus Coluber, but they also stated that there is unpublished evidence that might reject this.

Western populations have been proposed to constitute a distinct species, C. mormon (Fitch et al. 1981), but this distinction has been demonstrated to be invalid (Corn and Bury 1986; see also Greene 1984).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 29Oct1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (21Mar2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (S1), Arkansas (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (S5), Maine (S2), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S4S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (S5), New Hampshire (S3), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (S3), New York (S4), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (S4?), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (S4), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S5), Washington (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S2), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S2S3), Ontario (S1), Saskatchewan (S2S3)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):E,T,SC
Comments on COSEWIC: COSEWIC recognizes 3 distinct subspecies. Coluber constrictor flaviventris is Threatened (November 2004), Coluber constrictor foxii is Endangered (May 2012), Coluber constrictor mormon is Special Concern (Nov 2004).
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range extends from southern British Columbia, southern Saskatchewan, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, New York, and southern Maine southward in the United States to southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, the Gulf Coast, and southern Florida, and southward through northeastern, central, and southern Mexico to Guatemala and Belize (Wilson 1978, Lee 2000, Ernst and Ernst 2003, Stebbins 2003). A record for Durango, Mexico, evidently is erroneous (Webb 2001). Elevational range extends from sea level to about 2,550 meters (8,300 feet).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a very large number of occurrences or subpopulations (at least several hundred).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 1,000,000. This snake is common in most of its very large range in the United States but appears to be rare at the southern extent of the range in southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize (Lee 2000).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats have been identified. Historically, some populations undoubtedly experienced significant declines, particularly in major agricultural regions of intensive cultivation. Remaining populations are extensive and not threatened in most areas.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size are very large and probably relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) The range extends from southern British Columbia, southern Saskatchewan, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, New York, and southern Maine southward in the United States to southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, the Gulf Coast, and southern Florida, and southward through northeastern, central, and southern Mexico to Guatemala and Belize (Wilson 1978, Lee 2000, Ernst and Ernst 2003, Stebbins 2003). A record for Durango, Mexico, evidently is erroneous (Webb 2001). Elevational range extends from sea level to about 2,550 meters (8,300 feet).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, ON, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001)*
CO Delta (08029), Garfield (08045), Mesa (08077), Moffat (08081)*, Montrose (08085)*, Rio Blanco (08103)*
IA Johnson (19103)
LA Beauregard (22011), Vernon (22115)
MN Blue Earth (27013), Dakota (27037), Dodge (27039)*, Fillmore (27045), Goodhue (27049), Houston (27055), Le Sueur (27079), Mower (27099)*, Nicollet (27103), Olmsted (27109), Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163), Winona (27169)
MS Sharkey (28125)
NH Carroll (33003), Cheshire (33005), Hillsborough (33011), Merrimack (33013), Rockingham (33015), Strafford (33017)
OK Adair (40001), Atoka (40005), Cleveland (40027), Delaware (40041), Ellis (40045), Latimer (40077), Le Flore (40079), Muskogee (40101), Pontotoc (40123), Pottawatomie (40125), Pushmataha (40127), Roger Mills (40129)
VT Windham (50025)
WA Adams (53001), Asotin (53003), Benton (53005), Chelan (53007), Douglas (53017), Ferry (53019), Franklin (53021), Grant (53025), Kittitas (53037), Klickitat (53039), Lincoln (53043), Okanogan (53047), Skamania (53059), Stevens (53065), Whitman (53075), Yakima (53077)
WI Buffalo (55011)*, Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Grant (55043), Iowa (55049), Jackson (55053), Lafayette (55065), Pepin (55091), Pierce (55093), Richland (55103), Rock (55105), Sauk (55111), Trempealeau (55121)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Washakie (56043), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Contoocook (01070003)+, Nashua (01070004)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Miller (01080202)+
07 Twin Cities (07010206)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, Trempealeau (07040005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007)+, Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Middle Iowa (07080208)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+
08 Big Sunflower (08030207)+, Upper Calcasieu (08080203)+*, Whisky Chitto (08080204)+, West Fork Calcasieu (08080205)+
10 Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Salt (10090204)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Antelope (10120101)+, Upper Cheyenne (10120103)+, Lance (10120104)+, Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Hat (10120108)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+
11 Lower Neosho (11070209)+, Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201)+, Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202)+, Little (11090203)+, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102)+, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+, Poteau (11110105)+, Washita headwaters (11130301)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Upper Little (11140107)+
12 Lower Sabine (12010005)+*
14 Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005)+, Lower Gunnison (14020005)+, Uncompahange (14020006)+*, Lower Dolores (14030004)+*, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+*, Lower Yampa (14050002)+*, Little Snake (14050003)+, Upper White (14050005)+*, Piceance-Yellow (14050006)+*, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+*
15 Little Colorado headwaters (15020001)+*
17 Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001)+, Kettle (17020002)+, Colville (17020003)+, Chief Joseph (17020005)+, Okanogan (17020006)+, Methow (17020008)+, Lake Chelan (17020009)+, Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)+, Moses Coulee (17020012)+, Upper Crab (17020013)+, Banks Lake (17020014)+, Lower Crab (17020015)+, Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016)+, Upper Yakima (17030001)+, Naches (17030002)+, Lower Yakima, Washington (17030003)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Lower Snake (17060110)+, Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Klickitat (17070106)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Upper surface of adults varies from black (e.g., northeastern U.S) to plain brown or olive (most of western and central U.S.), with a spattering of white, yellowish, buff, or pale blue in some parts of the south-central United States; upper scales smooth (unkeeled); belly black (e.g., northeastern U.S.) to plain yellow or cream (western and central U.S.); eyes large; anal scale divided; nostril bordered by two separate scales; usually 15 dorsal scale rows just anterior to the vent; lower preocular scale (lowermost scale in front of the eye) wedged between upper lip scales. Total length up to around 190 cm in the northeastern U.S., much smaller (usually less than 90 cm) in the west. Hatchling: upper surface with numerous brown blotches on a paler background; eyes relatively huge. Source: Hammerson (1999).
Reproduction Comments: Eggs laying occurs in June or early to mid-July in most areas. Eggs laying peaks early to mid-June in southern Michigan (Rosen 1991), late June or early July in Utah/Colorado. Clutch size is usually 5-28, averages higher in the east than in the west; mean clutch size about 6 in Utah, 12 in Kansas, 15 in Michigan (Rosen 1991). Eggs hatch in about 6-9 weeks, generally in August or early September. Females become sexually mature in 3 years in Utah, 2-3 years in Kansas, 2 years in Michigan (Rosen 1991). Sometimes this snake nests communally.
Ecology Comments: Home range size was estimated at 1.4 ha for nongravid females in Utah (Brown and Parker 1976), about 10 ha in Kansas (Collins 1982). In South Carolina, summer home range was 5-21 ha (mean 12 ha); movement on active days was 74-135 m (mean 104 m); home ranges overlapped (Plummer and Congdon 1994). Population density was estimated to be 0.65/ha in Utah (Brown 1973), up to about 15/ha in Kansas. Estimated adult annual survivorship was 79% in Utah, 62% in Kansas, 54% in Michigan (Rosen 1991).

When confronted by a person, racers, like many harmless snakes, sometimes vibrate the tail. In dry vegetation, this may produce a sound similar to that make by a rattlesnakes rattle.

Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates up to at least 1.8 km between winter hibernaculum and summer range in Utah (Brown and Parker 1976), up to at least 2.3 km (average at least 848 m) in Michigan (Rosen 1991).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris, Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Habitats encompass a wide range of lowland and montane areas, including deserts, prairies, sandhills, shrublands, woodlands, forests, canyons, streamsides, and semi-agricultural areas. This snake is absent from the driest deserts and highest mountains (subalpine zones and higher). It commonly climbs shrubs and small trees. When inactive, it hides underground, in crevices, or under surface cover. Adults often hibernate communally, sometimes partly submerged in water. Eggs are laid in underground tunnels or burrows, rotting stumps, sawdust piles, or under rocks. Oviposition sites may be up to at least several hundred meters from the usual home range (Brown and Parker 1976, Iverson et al. 1995).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet typically includes small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and large insects.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Racers are inactive during cold weather and are dormant from October or November to March or April in much of the range (Hammerson 1999). They are active on bright overcast or sunny days in summer, but typically only on sunny, relatively warm days in spring and fall (Hammerson, 1987, Rosen 1991). In South Carolina in summer, racers were active on an average of 72% of days; inactive snakes usually were in ecdysis (Plummer and Congdon 1994).
Length: 196 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium And Large Colubrid Snakes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that snakes rarely if ever cross successfully; major river, lake, pond, or deep marsh (this barrier pertains only to upland species and does not apply to aquatic or wetland snakes); densely urbanized area dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Available information on movements of colubrid snakes is limited to a small minority of species. These data indicate that nearly all species have home ranges smaller or much smaller than 25 ha (e.g., less than 3 ha, Pituophis catenifer in California, Rodriguez-Robles 2003), with some up to about 75 ha (Heterodon platirhinos, average 50 ha, Plummer and Mills 2000), and the largest up to 225 ha in the biggest colubrids (Drymarchon, summer mean 50-100 ha, USFWS 1998).

Radiotelemetry data for Pantherophis indicate that residents of hibernacula that are 1-2 km apart (with suitable intervening habitat) probably interbreed (Prior et al. 1997, Blouin-Demers and Weatherhead 2002). However, "evidence of genetic structure even over short distances (e.g., 2-20 km) implies that gene flow among rat snake populations can be easily disrupted" (Prior et al. 1997). Loughheed et al. (1999) found evidence of substantial genetic exchange among local hibernacula (< 6 km apart), but gene flow over distances of 10s of km appears to be substantially less. Based on extensive radio-tracking data, Blouin-Demers and Weatherhead (2002) found that home range size of Pantherophis averaged 18.5 ha and ranged up to 93 ha; based on the most mobile individuals, Pantherophis from hibernacula up to 8 km apart can come together for mating. Pantherophis and probably other colubrids exhibit high fidelity to hibernacula and shift even to nearby sites only rarely (Prior et al. 2001).

Many of the several studies that report small home ranges for colubrids did not employ methods (e.g., radio telemetry) suitable for detecting full annual or multi-annual home range size, dispersal, or other long-distance movements, so these may have yielded underestimates of home ranges or activity areas.

At least some colubrids, including medium-sized species such as garter snakes, not uncommonly move between areas up to a few kilometers apart, and several species make extensive movements of up to several kilometers, so separation distances of 1-2 km for suitable habitat are too small for medium-sized and large colubrids.

A separation distance of 10 km for suitable habitat was selected as most appropriate for snakes assigned to this Specs Group because it seems generally unlikely that two locations separated by less than 10 km of suitable habitat would represent distinct occurrences.

For the purposes of these occurrence specifications, upland habitat is regarded as unsuitable habitat for aquatic and wetland snakes. For upland snakes, shallow or patchy wetlands are treated as unsuitable habitat whereas large deepwater habitats (subjective determination) are barriers.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Date: 12Feb2013
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: Separation distance for suitable habitat was changed from 5 km to 10 km based on comments from Dale Jackson (12 Feb 2013).
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Andrews, J. S. 2005. Evaluation of Eastern Racer (Coluber constrictor) habitat use and replacement: a cooperative effort of the Vermont Departments of Transportation and Fish and Wildlife. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

  • Auffenberg, W. 1955. A Reconsideration of the Racer, COLUBER CONSTRICTOR, in the Eastern United States. Tulane Studies in Zoology, Volume 2, Number 6, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana. 155 pp.

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  • Brown, W. S. 1973. Ecology of the racer, Coluber constrictor mormon (Serpentes, Colubridae), in a cold temperate desert in northern Utah. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City.

  • Brown, W. S., and W. S. Parker. 1976. Movement ecology of Coluber constrictor near communal hibernacula. Copeia 1976:225-242.

  • Brown, W.S. and W.S. Parker. 1984. Growth, reproduction, and demography of the racer, COLUBER CONSTRICTOR MORMON, in northern Utah, p. 13-40. In: Vertebrate ecology and systematics: a tribute to Henry S. Fitch. R.A. Seigel, L.E. Hunt, J.L. Knight, L. Malaret, and N.L. Zuschlag (eds.). University of Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Special Publication No. 10.

  • Burbrink, F.T., F. Fontanella, R.P. Alexander, T.J. Guiher, C. Jimenez. 2008. Phylogeography across a continent: The evolutionary and demographic history of the North American racer (Serpentes: Colubridae: Coluber constrictor). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47: 274-288. http://publicdocs.mnr.gov.on.ca/View.asp?Document_ID=20108&Attachment_ID=42560

  • Burnley, J.M. 1971. Early date records of amphibians and reptiles on Long Island. Engelhardtia 4(1):1-7.

  • Burnley, J.M. 1971. Late date records of amphibians and reptiles on Long Island. Engelhardtia 4(3):17-22.

  • COLLINS, J.T. 1982. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN KANSAS. UNIV.KANS.MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.EDUCA.SERIES NO.8.

  • CONANT, R. 1975. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OFEASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA.

  • COSEWIC 2002. COSEWIC assessment and update status report the blue racer Coluber constrictor foxii. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 17 pp.

  • COSEWIC. 2002. Canadian Species at Risk, May 2002. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 34 pp. Available online: http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/

  • COSEWIC. 2004r. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Eastern and Western Yellow- bellied Racers, Coluber constrictor flaviventris and Coluber constrictor mormon in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 35 pp. (www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm)

  • COSEWIC. 2015i. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Eastern Yellow-bellied Racer Coluber constrictor flaviventris and Western Yellow-bellied Racer Coluber constrictor mormon in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. xvii + 64 pp.

  • Campbell, C.A. 1975. A Report on the Blue Racer (Coluber constrictor foxi) in Ontario: Its status, requirements and management. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Branch, Toronto, Ontario. Unpublished report. 31 pp.

  • Campbell, C.A. 1976. Preliminary field study of the Blue Racer (Coluber constrictor foxi) on Pelee Island, Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham District, Chatham, Ontario. Unpublished report. 62 pp. + maps.

  • Campbell, C.A. and D.W. Perrin. 1997. Status report on the Racer Coluber constrictor in Canada with additions on the Eastern and Western Yellowbelly Racers by J. Malcolm Macartney with additions on the Blue Racer by Ben Porchuk. 34 pp.

  • Campbell, C.A., D.W. Perrin, J.M. Macartney, B. Porchuk, F.R. Cook, and R.J. Brooks. 1991. Status report on the Racer, COLUBER CONSTRICTOR. Committee on the status of endangered wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).

  • Campbell, C.A., and D.W. Perrin. 1991. Status report on the Racer, Coluber constrictor, in Canada. Unpubl. rep. submitted to the Comm. on the Status of Endangered Wildl. in Can., Ottawa, ON. 34pp.

  • Campbell, Jonathan A., D. R. Formanowicz, Jr., and E. D. Brodie, Jr. 1989. Potential impact of rattlesnake roundups on natural populations. Texas Journal of Science 41(3):301-317.

  • Chambers, R.E. 1983. Integrating timber and wildlife management. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

  • Cliburn, J.W. 1976. A key to the amphibians and reptiles of Mississippi. Fourth edition. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi. 71 pp.

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  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1991. Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. SSAR Herpetol. Review 22:42-43.

  • Collins, J. T. 1997. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. Fourth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetolgical Circular No. 25. 40 pp.

  • Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, New York. 616 pp.

  • Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.

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