Clinopodium dentatum - (Chapman) Kuntze
Toothed Savory
Other English Common Names: Florida Calamint
Other Common Names: Florida calamint
Synonym(s): Calamintha dentata Chapman
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Clinopodium dentatum (Chapman) Kuntze (TSN 511161)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138565
Element Code: PDLAM08050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Clinopodium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Calamintha dentata
Taxonomic Comments: Recognized as Clinopodium dentatum by Kartesz (1999); has also been treated as Calamintha dentata (as in Kartesz, 1994) or as Satureja dentata. Name has been incorrectly spelled 'dentatum' in genus Calamintha.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Jul1983
Global Status Last Changed: 11Jul1983
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Very narrow distribution and species is not adequately protected; habitat is being converted to pine plantations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Florida panhandle-Bay, Gadsden, Jackson, Liberty, Wakulla, Walton Counties; Reported Gulf and Calhoun Counties; Tattnall County, Georgia.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Fourteen occurrences mapped (10/90); herbarium specimens not mapped; expect many other populations are not recorded.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Conversion of its natural habitat to slash pine plantations could be considered a threat as the trees may eventually shade it out. However it seems to do well (at least usually) where site disturbance occurs. Crop farming or pasture development on cleared sand ridges has eliminated some habitat (Kral, 1983).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Not greatly threatened; increases after disturbance (logging, site preparation).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Florida panhandle-Bay, Gadsden, Jackson, Liberty, Wakulla, Walton Counties; Reported Gulf and Calhoun Counties; Tattnall County, Georgia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Bay (12005), Calhoun (12013), Gadsden (12039), Jackson (12063), Liberty (12077), Walton (12131), Washington (12133)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Chipola (03130012)+, New (03130013)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Technical Description: Pungently aromatic shrub 3 - 7 dm tall, usually profusely branched (often from the base), crown frequently as broad as tall. Stems erect or ascending, gray-brown, bark thin and exfoliating, pubescent. Leaves opposite, broadly oblanceolate to obovate, 5 - 12 (mostly about 10) mm long, apex rounded and dentate, margins revolute and occasionally toothed, base cuneate, upper surface yellow-green, gland-dotted, pubescent, lower surface paler and also gland-dotted. Petioles very short or absent. Lowest leaves usually absent by flowering time. Flowers opposite or paired in terminal leaf axils. Calyx 6 - 7 mm long, cyclindrical, green with tints of maroon on the 10 - 12 ribs, upper lip upcurved, with 3 short, triangular maroon lobes, lower lip with 2 long narrow upcurved lobes. Corolla about 15 mm long, bilabiate, tube and throat narrowly funnelform and 7 - 8 mm long, upper lip shorter than lower, oblong, arching forward, lower lip spreading and directed downward, middle lobe broader than laterals and extending beyond them. Corolla lavender rose, palest towards base, all puberulent; inner surface of lower lip with a pale median zone, marked with dark purplish flecks and lines. Stame ns 4, of 2 lengt hs, archi ng upwar d but not e x e r t e d . S t y l e s l e n d e r , 2 - b r a n c h e d . Fruit of 4 nutlets, each broadly ovoid or nearly round, 1.5 mm long. (Kral, 1983; Small, 1933)

Calamintha dentata is characterized by its minty odor, low densely leaved habit with numerous erect branches; small, yellow-green oblanceolate to obovate leaves that are dentate at the apex and gland-dotted; paired, axillary, bilabiate, lavender rose flowers with purplish flecks and dots inside; and sandy habit (Kral, 1983; Small, 1933).

Ecology Comments: Kral (1983) said this is perhaps the weediest species of the genus and doubtfully threatened within its rather small range. Wilson Baker (Tall Timbers Research Station, personal communication on August 22, 1984) concurred with this evaluation and added that it is a relatively common or even dominant shrub in some areas and is even occasionally found in people's yards. Kral (1983) reported that basil is most abundant in longleaf pine-turk oak sand ridges where it appears to maintain itself where clear-cutting and accompanying site disturbance have occurred. He added that it is also locally common in slash pine plantations established within its range, being winnowed out only where shade and litter become too dense. Leonard and Baker (1982) reported Calamintha dentata to be an abundant sand ridge species in Liberty County where it has been observed on all sandy ridges between the ravines from south of Kelly Branch (near Bristol) to the north side of Sweetwater Creek (near Torreya State Park). Baker (personal communication) added that it is common on TNC's Apalachicola Bluffs & Ravines Preserve, and its range extends eastward to near Hosford.

Kral (1983) does not mention C. dentata tolerance to fire, but its sandhill habitat is known to have historically burned every 2 - 5 year (Duever, 1983).

There currently is not a monograph of the genus, and little information was found on basil's life history. The plants flower over most of the year; Kral (1983) gave from April to frost. Hortus Third (Bailey Hortorium Staff, 1976) reported that several related Calamintha species are cultivated as condiments and are propagated by seeds sown where they are to grow and perennial species also by division and cuttings of new growth. Calamintha dentata may be inferred to probably have a high seed viability rate due to its widespread weedy nature.

Habitat Comments: Calamintha dentata grows in a wide range of xeric, well drained, sandy habitats, including longleaf pine-deciduous oak sandhills, planted pine plantations, sand, open and abandoned fields, and roadsides (Kral, 1983). It also may be occasionally found on open sandy slopes at the heads of some ravines (Leonard and Baker, 1982), where its leaves are larger and broader and its habit more slender (Kral, 1983). Associated plants may include Pinus palustris, P. elliottii (where planted), Quercus laevis, Q. incana, Q. virginiana, Yucca, Opuntia, Andropogon, and Aristida.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview:

1. Monitoring of known populations of Calamintha dentata should be done regularly. Monthly field surveys should be performed where recent fire or pine plantation activity has disturbed this species.

2. Additional populations should be searched for in the Florida panhandle counties where it has been collected in the past. The Georgia station in Tattnall County should also be surveyed. This data collection would help to determine its exact status.

3. The life history of Calamintha dentata should be investigated, including its reproductive strategy and capacity, seedling establishment and maintenance. Its propagation should also be studied.

4. The effects of different prescribed burning schedules on basil should be monitored at the Apalachicola Bluffs & Ravines Preserves or wherever else a fire may occur.

Restoration Potential: Calamintha dentata can apparently withstand drastic alterations of its habitat (Kral, 1983) and it seems to spread into disturbed areas quite readily (Baker, personal communication).
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Forty acres should be considered a minimum size for a sandhill preserve. A smaller site with an exemplary population of C. dentata could be considered for protection. The site should have a fairly open canopy and be large or secure enough to allow fire as a management tool (FNAI).
Management Requirements: This species does not appear to require active management at this time. Kral (1983) listed overstory cutting or thinning to be beneficial if done properly. He wrote that site preparation for pine plantations has no lasting effect but that an established plantation may shade out Calamintha. He added that prescribed burning is not applicable as a management tool.

Calamintha dentata is currently growing quite well on the Apalachicola Bluffs & Ravines Preserve without active management (Baker, personal communic tion).

Monitoring Requirements: Calamintha should be occasionally monitored on the Apalachicola Bluffs & Ravines Preserve (ABRP) and surrounding areas. Its populations seem to be stable or increasing in Liberty County, at least. The trends of population on the ABRP should be monitored to help determine management requirements.

Field surveys of known habitats should be performed on a regular basis. These surveys should be done monthly in areas recently disturbed by fire or pine plantation activity.

Monitoring Programs: The FNAI should be contacted for further information. Wilson Baker can be contacted at Tall Timbers Research Station, Route 1, Box 160, Tallahassee, FL 32312. He is probably the most up-to-date on what is happening at the Liberty County sites.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Jun1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Edmondson, L.; update: D.L. White; G. Schultz (1986)
Management Information Edition Date: 17Feb1986
Management Information Edition Author: GARY SCHULTZ
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Feb1986
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): SCHULTZ, G.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus Third. Macmillan, New York.

  • Duever, L.C. 1983. Natural communities of Florida's inland sand ridges. Palmetto 3(3): 1-3.

  • Duncan, W.H., and J.T. Kartesz. 1981. Vascular Flora of Georgia: An annotated checklist. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 143 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. USFS Tech. Publ. R8-TP 2, Atlanta, GA. 2 Vol. 1305 pp.

  • Leonard, S.W. and W.W. Baker. 1982. Biological survey of the Apalachicola Ravines biotic region of Florida. FL State Office of The Nature Conservancy. Unpublished report.

  • Shinners, L. H. 1962c. Calamintha (Labiatae) in the southern United States. Sida 1:69-75.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

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