Clangula hyemalis - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Long-tailed Duck
Other English Common Names: Oldsquaw
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 175147)
French Common Names: harelde kakawi
Spanish Common Names: Pato Cola Larga
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103301
Element Code: ABNJB16010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 11068

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Clangula
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Clangula hyemalis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large geographic range and population size; relative immunity of arctic breeding grounds from human intrusion; tendency for non-breeding congregations to be found off-shore.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (26Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3N), Alaska (S5B,S4N), Arizona (S1N), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S3N), District of Columbia (S1N), Georgia (SNRN), Idaho (S1N), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S1N), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (S5N), Maryland (S4N), Massachusetts (S5N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRN), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Nebraska (SNRN), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S3N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S1N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S3N), Utah (S1N), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S3S4N), West Virginia (S1N), Wisconsin (S4N), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada Alberta (S4M), British Columbia (S2S3B,S4N), Labrador (S2S3B,S5N,S5M), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S4M,S4N), Newfoundland Island (S5N,S5M), Northwest Territories (S3B), Nova Scotia (S5N), Nunavut (S4B,SUN,S4M), Ontario (S3B), Prince Edward Island (S4N), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S4M), Yukon Territory (S4B,S3M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: VU - Vulnerable

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: in North America, from northern coast of Alaska east across Canada to Ellesmere and Baffin Islands and northern Labrador south to southern and central Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, eastern and south-central MacKenzie and Keewatin, and Hudson and James Bays. In Palearctic from Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, and Scandinavia east across Russia to Chukotski Peninsula, Anadyrland, Kamchatka, and the Commander Islands. NON-BREEDING: in North America, mainly on coasts from Aleutians to Washington and from northern Greenland to South Carolina; in the interior, primarily on the Great Lakes (AOU 1983). In winter the highest densities occur along the Aleutian Islands and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; other areas of abundance include Lake Michigan, the coast of Maine, Lake Ontario, and south-coastal British Columbia (Root 1988). In the early 1990s, USFWS Winter Sea Duck Survey in eastern North America found the highest densities in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Maine, and Maryland (Kehoe 1994).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: No data available.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Global population very large, perhaps over 10 million individuals (Madge and Burn 1988).

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Potentially vulnerable to oil spills, especially when concentrated in large flocks in non-breeding season. Small numbers killed by hunting or entangelement in fishing nets (Madge and Burns 1988), though potentially less susceptible to harvest than other species (Kehoe 1996). In the Atlantic Flyway, winter habitat has been affected by urbanization and industrialization, but effect on populations is unknown (Kehoe 1994).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: No significant trend for wintering birds of the Atlantic Flyway, 1954-1994 (Kehoe 1996). A reliable population estimate for North America is not available; evident downward trend in breeding population may be inaccurate due to data weaknesses (Kehoe 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Needs comprehensive range wide population trend monitoring, probably on wintering grounds.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: in North America, from northern coast of Alaska east across Canada to Ellesmere and Baffin Islands and northern Labrador south to southern and central Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, eastern and south-central MacKenzie and Keewatin, and Hudson and James Bays. In Palearctic from Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, and Scandinavia east across Russia to Chukotski Peninsula, Anadyrland, Kamchatka, and the Commander Islands. NON-BREEDING: in North America, mainly on coasts from Aleutians to Washington and from northern Greenland to South Carolina; in the interior, primarily on the Great Lakes (AOU 1983). In winter the highest densities occur along the Aleutian Islands and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; other areas of abundance include Lake Michigan, the coast of Maine, Lake Ontario, and south-coastal British Columbia (Root 1988). In the early 1990s, USFWS Winter Sea Duck Survey in eastern North America found the highest densities in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Maine, and Maryland (Kehoe 1994).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Nez Perce (16069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A sea duck.
Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May in south to June in north. Egg laying peaks late June-early July at Arctic Natl. Wildl. Ref. Clutch size often 5-11 (usually 6-8). Incubation 25-26 days, by female (male departs). Most eggs hatch in 2nd half of June in Beaufort Sea area. Nestlings precocial and downy. Young tended by female, independent in about 5 weeks (Harrison 1978). Does not breed until at least 2 years old. According to Bellrose (1980), nest success is around 70% and brood survival data are lacking. Frequently nests in clusters or colonies. Nests per sq km in northern Alaska: 0.6-1.8 in different areas (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Ecology Comments: Nonbreeding: may form very large concentrations, but tends to occur in small offshore flocks (Atlantic Flyway, Kehoe 1994).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates northward to breeding grounds in March-April. Moves southward in fall, October-November (Terres 1980). Some that summer in northwestern Alaska spend the winter in eastern Asia. Passes through Bering Strait in large numbers in late April. Large numbers fly eastward to Beaufort Sea area breeding areas from western Alaska, some probably arrive from interior Alaska, others migrate from coastal British Columbia and/or Great Lakes region and arrive via Mackenzie Valley. Arrives along Beaufort Sea coast mid-May (in west) to early June (eastern part). In Beaufort Sea area, males and some nonbreeding females migrate in early summer to large lakes and coastal lagoons and form large molting flocks; remain through July and August (Johnson and Herter 1989). Fall migration in Beaufort Sea area begins with males in late August; females with broods move to coastal lagoons with freeze-up in September, begin migration late September or early October (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Tundra
Habitat Comments: NON-BREEDING: coastal waters (e.g., rough water of rocky coasts, deep but calm bays and coves), large inland lakes and (less commonly) rivers. BREEDING: on lake islands and by pools in open tundra and taiga. Nest usually concealed in vegetation. Nest site selection apparently influenced by predation pressure from foxes, gulls, ravens, and jaegers.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds mainly on animal food; eats crustaceans, fishes and their eggs, mollusks, and aquatic insects. Also eats a variety of aquatic plants (roots, leaves, buds, seeds). May dive very deep to obtain food (Bellrose 1976). Euphyllopods appear to be an especially important food source for ducklings. Individuals in summer molting flocks feed in nearshore waters on MYSIS, ONISIMUS, and bivalve mollusks (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 56 centimeters
Weight: 932 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: In recent decades, annual harvest in eastern North America averaged 25,730 (46% in eastern Canada); harvest has been increasing in the U.S.; regularly harvested south to Virginia (Kehoe 1994).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Diving Ducks and Sea Ducks

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Little information on breeding home ranges; separation distance somewhat arbitrary. Territories not defended in eiders, but goldeneyes defend small (0.18 to 1.45 hectares) territories (Eadie et al. 2000). Philopatry to breeding area strong in Common Eider (Reed 1975, Wakeley and Mendall 1976, Swennen 1990), and Spectacled Eider (Grand and Flint 1997).
Date: 29May2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Staging area, Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Migration staging area, Wintering area, Non-breeding feeding concentration area, Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting, staging, or wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. For wintering occurrences, it would be preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Mapping Guidance: Map roosting and feeding areas with separate polygons in same EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Fidelity to molting sites (one or two lakes) high in Barrow's Goldeneye (van de Wetering 1997); fidelity to wintering sites probably high in Barrow's Goldeneye (Savard 1985). Separation distance somewhat arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 21Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jul1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Mehlman, D.W.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Sep1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

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  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 2000. Forty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 117:847-858

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des oiseaux du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 13 pages.

  • B83COM01NAUS - Added from 2005 data exchange with Alberta, Canada.

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  • Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.

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  • Canadian Wildlife Service. 1995. Last Mountain Lake and Stalwart National Wildlife Areas: Bird Checklist - Fourth Edition. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON.

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  • Cogswell, H. L. 1977. Water birds of California. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 399 pp.

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  • Eadie, J. M., L.-P. L. Savard, and M. L. Mallory. 2000 Barrow's Goldeneye (BUCEPHALA ISLANDICA). No. 548 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.

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  • Kehoe, P., compiler and editor. 1994. Status and information needs of sea ducks in the Atlantic Flyway. Prepared by the Ad Hoc Sea Duck Committee. 71+ pp.

  • Lagacé M., L. Blais et D. Banville. 1983. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Première édition. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. 100

  • Madge, S., and H. Burn. 1988. Waterfowl: An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 298 pp.

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  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.

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  • Peck, G.K. and R.D. James. 1983. The Breeding Birds of Ontario: Nidiology and Distribution. Volume 1: Nonpasserines. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publication, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario. xii + 321 pp.

  • Peck, G.K. and R.D. James. 2000. Breeding Birds of Ontario: Nidiology and Distribution Volume 1: Nonpasserines (Additions and Revisions). Ontario Birds 17(3): 105-123.

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  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
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