Cirsium longistylum - Moore & Frankton
Long-styled Thistle
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cirsium longistylum J.W. Moore & Frankton (TSN 36384)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131907
Element Code: PDAST2E1P0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Cirsium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cirsium longistylum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Feb2011
Global Status Last Changed: 28Nov2011
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Population estimates of approximately 30,000 plants, including seven high quality populations, scattered over four mountain ranges are promising for the long-term viability of the species. Habitat in the largest populations is generally of high quality with few if any problem weeds posing significant and immediate threats. In the near future, little change in habitat quality is expected in these populations. Sites are mostly on National Forest lands that provide a degree of protection and two large populations on private lands that have a history of light to moderate grazing appear stable. Also of benefit at this time is the active weed control program employed by the private landowners on their lands.

Long- and short-term population trends are difficult to gauge due to the lack of good survey data over many years. However, available data and observations provide some evidence that population levels have at least remained fairly stable over the past decade, with significant yearly fluctuations possible. Threats posed by invasive weeds and the introduced bio-control agent do provide reason for concern.

Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Montana (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to central Montana with extant populations in Broadwater, Cascade, Judith Basin, Lewis & Clark, Meagher and Wheatland counties.

Area of Occupancy: 26-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Most significant threats are from weed invasion and infestation and from the introduced inflorescence-feeding weevil Rhinocyllus conicus, introduced to control Carduus nutans.


Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Not intrinsically vulnerable to moderately vulnerable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to central Montana with extant populations in Broadwater, Cascade, Judith Basin, Lewis & Clark, Meagher and Wheatland counties.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MT Broadwater (30007), Cascade (30013), Fergus (30027)*, Judith Basin (30045), Lewis and Clark (30049), Meagher (30059), Wheatland (30107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Smith (10030103)+, Belt (10030105)+, Judith (10040103)+, Upper Musselshell (10040201)+, Flatwillow (10040203)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Long-styled Thistle has simple or branched stems that are 50-60 cm tall and up to 15 mm thick at the base; plants are perennial, producing daughter rosettes that live for two more years. The basal leaves are shallowly lobed, moderately spiny, green and glabrous above, and densely white-hairy below; the lower leaves are narrowly lance-shaped, up to 15 cm long, and lobed to 1/3 or less the leaf width. The smaller upper leaves are more ovate in outline with mostly entire margins and numerous marginal spines; the herbage is covered with long, tangled, white hairs. The inflorescence usually consists of a terminal cluster of 2 to several flower heads and a number of side branches which reach up to 15 cm long and have fewer heads; each flower head is ca. 30 mm high, 25 mm wide, and subtended by a few reduced leaves. The involucral bracts occur in two main series: the outer are narrowly lance-shaped with a yellowish, dilated, and fringed apex tipped by a slender spine; the inner bracts are more lance-shaped and longer. The white disk flowers are 20-22 mm long; ray flowers are absent. There are numerous tawny bristles which form a pappus at the tip of the achene.
Diagnostic Characteristics: This species can best be distinguished from the closely-related C. hookerianum by the dilated and fringed involucral bracts.
Duration: BIENNIAL, Short-lived
Habitat Comments: C. longistylum occurs in a variety of open habitats that receive full to partial sun. The best habitats for the species occur in montane to subalpine meadows. Occurrences are also common along roadsides, herbaceous-dominated riparian areas and open forests of Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine or whitebark pine. Plants occur as low 4800 feet elevation up to approximately 8100 feet with the majority of the occurrences between approximately 6000 and 7500 feet. Known occurrences of C longistylum are predominantly on calcareous soils derived from dolomites, limestones or shales.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Dec2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Mincemoyer, S
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Dec2004
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Mincemoyer, S

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Achuff, P.L., and L.A. Schassberger Roe. 1992. Weeds and rare native plants in Montana. Proceedings Weed Symposium (1991): 18-23.

  • Biosystems Analysis, Inc. 1994. Endangered species biological survey final report. [Contract F24604 93 C0324]. Submitted to D. Spitzer, Malmstrom Air Force Base. 47 pp. plus appendices.

  • Brunsfeld, S. J. and C. T. Baldwin. 1994. Preliminary genetic analysis of CIRSIUM LONGISTYLUM (Long-styled thistle), a candidate threatened species. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 4. Wildland Plant Ecogenetics Cooperative, in cooperation with the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 20 pp. plus appendices.

  • Dorn, R.D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 276 pp.

  • Heidel, B. L. 1994. Monitoring study of CIRSIUM LONGISTYLUM (long-styled thistle), a candidate threatened species. Unpublished report prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 4. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 32 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mathews, S.Y. 1990. CIRSIUM LONGISTYLUM project: summary report. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 3 pp.

  • Moore, R. J. and C. Frankton. 1963. Cytotaxonomic notes on some Cirsium species of the western United States. Canadian Journal of Botany 41:1553-1567.

  • Poole, J. M. and B. L. Heidel. 1993a. Sensitive plant surveys in the Big Belt and Elkhorn Mountains, Helena National Forest, Montana. Unpublished report to the Helena National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 129 pp. plus printouts, maps.

  • Poole, J. M. and B. L. Heidel. 1993b. A taxonomic assessment and monitoring study of the long-styled thistle (CIRSIUM LONGISTYLUM). Unpublished report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 97 pp.

  • Schassberger, L. A. 1991. Report on the conservation status of CIRSIUM LONGISTYLUM, a candidate threatened species. Unpublished report. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 92 pp.

  • Schassberger, L. A. and P. L. Achuff. 1991. Status review of CIRSIUM LONGISTYLUM, Lewis and Clark National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT. 78 pp.

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