Cichorium intybus - L.
Chicory
Other Common Names: chicory
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cichorium intybus L. (TSN 36763)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154066
Element Code: PDAST2D020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Cichorium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cichorium intybus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (12Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Labrador (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, GA, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, LBexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Cichorium intybus occurs in every contiguous U.S. state and is found on roadsides, grasslands, fence rows, waste ground, lawns, fields, and pastures. Cichorium intybus is common across the U.S. but mainly occurs in disturbed areas. In Grand Canyon National Park, Cichorium intybus exhibits little or no increase in numbers of individuals and populations and no invasion of native communities. In Tennessee, it is classified as a species that spreads in or near disturbed areas but is not considered a threat to native plant communities. Cichorium intybus seeds remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years. Apparently, Cichorium intybus is having few negative impacts on biodiversity.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 15Jun2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to northern Africa, temperate Asia, India, Pakistan, and Europe (GRIN 2001).

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Occurs on roadsides, grasslands, fence rows, waste ground, lawns, fields, and pastures throughout the U.S. (Agricultural Research Service 1970).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: There are unconfirmed reports that in Colorado, Cichorium intybus affects the availability of soil nutrients and water to native plants (APRS Implementation Team 2001). Assumption is that any alterations are not significant or major/irreversible.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Cichorium intybus is a perennial herb, with a much branched stem and can reach over five feet in height (Colorado Weed Management Association 1999).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: In Grand Canyon National Park, Cichorium intybus exhibits little or no increase in numbers of individuals and populations and no invasion of native communities (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In Tennessee, it is classified as a lesser threat, an exotic plant species that spreads in or near disturbed areas but not presently considered a threat to native plant communities (TNEPPC 2001). It has milky juice (Muenscher 1955). Assumption is that it is not causing major alterations in ecological community composition.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of impacts on particular native species found in the literature; assumption is that any impacts are not major.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Occurs on roadsides, grasslands, fence rows, waste ground, lawns, fields, and pastures throughout the U.S. (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Common in roadsides and waste places in California (Hickman 1993). Apparently, it is not often or occasionally threatening elements of conservation significance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Cichorium intybus occurs in every contiguous U.S. state (Kartesz 1999). It is widespread in several states including California, Illinois and New York, and fairly widespread in many others (Baldwin et al. 2004, Rice 2004, Rocky Mountain Herbarium 1998, Weber et al. 2004, Wisconsin State Herbarium 2004, Iverson et al. 1999, Weldy et al. 2002, University of Tennessee Herbarium 2002, Rayner et al. 2000, and Wunderlin and Hansen 2004). Herbarium records probably underestimate the range of this species.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: In Grand Canyon National Park, Cichorium intybus exhibits little or no increase in numbers of individuals and populations and no invasion of native communities (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In Tennessee, it is classified as a lesser threat, an exotic plant species that spreads in or near disturbed areas but not presently considered a threat to native plant communities (TNEPPC 2001). Chicory is classified as a noxious weed in Colorado and Arizona (Kartesz 1999). It is scattered throughout Colorado between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (Colorado Weed Management Association 1999). Common in roadsides and waste places in California (Hickman 1993). Most troublesome (as a weed of disturbed areas) in limestone regions (Muenscher 1955).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: At most 100% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001). At least 23% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Occurs on roadsides, grasslands, fence rows, waste ground, lawns, fields, and pastures throughout the U.S. (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Common in roadsides and waste places in California (Hickman 1993). In the northeastern U.S., it occurs on roadsides, fields, and waste places (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). In the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, it is common and occurs on roadsides, fencerows, vacant lots, disturbed areas (Weakley draft 2004).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Generalized range already covers most of region (Kartesz 1999). Occurs on roadsides, grasslands, fence rows, waste ground, lawns, fields, and pastures throughout the U.S. (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Occurs in disturbed areas; assumption is that disturbed areas are not declining and therefore this species' total range is not declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Insignificant
Comments: Cichorium intybus already occurs in every continental U.S. state (Kartesz 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Fruit is an achene, 2-3 mm long (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Cichorium intybus has little potential for long-distance dispersal in Grand Canyon National Park and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore but great potential for long-distance dispersal in Colorado (APRS Implementation Team 2001).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: Occurs on roadsides, grasslands, fence rows, waste ground, lawns, fields, and pastures throughout the U.S. (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Occurs in disturbed areas; assumption is that disturbed areas are not decreasing and therefore this species' local range is not stable or decreasing.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: In Grand Canyon National Park, Cichorium intybus is found in midsuccessional sites disturbed 11 to 50 years before present and is associated with early successional species (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and in Colorado, Cichorium intybus requries open soil and disturbance to germinate (APRS Implementation Team 2001).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: In Canada, Cichorium intybus occurs along roadsides and in fields and waste places (Scoggon 1978). These are habitats it has already invaded in the U.S.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Chicory reproduces only by seeds (APRS Implementation Team 2001) or it reproduces by seeds and from roots below the crown (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Number of seeds per plant is 11-1000 or greater than 1000 (APRS Implementation Team 2001). Seeds remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Scattered plants can be contolled by cutting well below the crown (Muenscher 1955). It appears that heavy gazing or frequent clippping/mowing would be helpful in controlling weedy populations of chicory (Haubensak and Smyth 1999). Cichorium intybus has a long deep tap-root (Agricultural Research Service 1970).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Moderate significance
Comments: Seeds remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001). Chicory reproduces only by seeds (APRS Implementation Team 2001) or it reproduces by seeds and from roots below the crown (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Number of seeds per plant is 11-1000 or greater than 1000 (APRS Implementation Team 2001). No mention of control requiring more than 10 years found in the literature; assumption is that control requires less than 10 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High/Low significance
Comments: Control methods in Grand Canyon National Park are likely to cause moderate impacts to the community (APRS Implementation Team 2001).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Low significance
Comments: Chicory is valued as forage for sheep and cows (Haubensak and Smyth 1999). Chicory may be grown commercially; it is used as a coffee substitute and salad green (Steiner 1983). At least in some areas, accessibility may be a problem.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Colorado Weed Management Association (CWMA). 1999. Noxious weeds and non-native plant factsheets. Available: http://www.cwma.org/2_bad_weed.html. (Accessed 2002).

  • Cranston, R., D. Ralph, and B. Wikeem. 2002. Field guide to noxious and other selected weeds of British Columbia - fourth edition. Available: http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedguid/weedguid.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Haubensak, K., and A. Smyth. 1999. November last update. Channel Islands National Park Fact Sheet on Chicorium intybus. University of California at Berkeley. Online. Available: http://usgssrv1.usgs.nau.edu/swepic/factsheets/Chicorium_intybus.pdf (accessed 15 June 2004).

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Hoagland B.W., A.K. Buthod, I.H. Butler, P.H.C. Crawford, A.H. Udasi, W.J. Elisens, and R.J. Tyrl. 2004. Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database. Oklahoma Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman. Online. Available: http://geo.ou.edu/botanical (accessed 2004).

  • Iverson, L.R., D. Ketzner and J. Karnes. 1999. Illinois Plant Information Network. Database at http://fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/ilpin.html. Illinois Natural History Survey and USDA Forest Service.

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  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

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  • Weber, W. R., W. T. Corcoran, M. Brunell, and P. L. Redfearn. 2004. February last update. Atlas of Missouri vascular plants, dot map edition. Online. Available: http://biology.smsu.edu/Herbarium/Plants%20of%20the%20Interior%20Highlands/ATLAS%20MISSOURI%20VASCULAR%20PLANTS,%20DOT%20MAP%20EDITION.htm (accessed 2004)

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