Chrysosplenium iowense - Rydb.
Iowa Golden-saxifrage
Other English Common Names: Iowa Golden Carpet
Other Common Names: Iowa golden saxifrage
Synonym(s): Chrysosplenium alternifolium var. sibiricum Seringe ex DC.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chrysosplenium iowense Rydb. (TSN 24193)
French Common Names: dorine d'Iowa
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.143839
Element Code: PDSAX07030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Saxifrage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rosales Saxifragaceae Chrysosplenium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chrysosplenium iowense
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31Aug2016
Global Status Last Changed: 31Aug2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Primarily a Canadian species. In Canada, known from British Columbia (S2?), Alberta (S3?), Saskatchewan (S1), and Manitoba (S1?) (current ranks as of July 2016). About 25 disjunct populations occur in the U.S. (in Iowa and Minnesota); these are believed to be relics of Pleistocene vegetation.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (31Aug2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Iowa (S2), Minnesota (S1)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S2?), Manitoba (S1), Northwest Territories (SNR), Saskatchewan (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Disjunct in the United States in Iowa and Minnesota. More widespread in Canada: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchawan, Manitoba, and District of Mackenzie (N.W.T.).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: At least twenty-three extant occurrences in Iowa. Ranked S1 in Minnesota and in Saskatchawan. Moss (1994) indicates at least 46 occurrences (dots in Moss may indicate more than one occurrence) in Alberta. As of Oct. 1998, most botanists in Alberta view it as quite common with 100 occurrences or more there (Joyce Gould, pers. comm.), but these have not necessarily been documented. It is unclear if this species is as common as once believed (pers. comm. Joyce Gould 2006). Number of occurrences in the rest of Canada unknown but probably more than in the United States, where it is essentially disjunct in cold microclimate-sites such as algific talus slopes.

There are 3 occurrences of this species in British Columbia. Further, Doulgas et al. (2002) report that 'after an absence of 64 years [in British Columbia], this species was collected in 2001 by J. Fenneman and F. L. Lomer, separately, in the Peace River area, at Little Prairie Lakes and Wapiti River, respectively' (85p.).

Population Size Comments: Population sizes do not tend to be big; up to a couple hundred individuals at the most.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats (esp. at U.S. sites) include trampling or continuous disturbance, from humans (Pusateri, pers. comm., 1983), or cattle (Hutson, 1981; Morley, 1978). Logging may be a concern, and can lead to woody species invasion (Morley, 1978; Smith, 1981).

Indirect effects of land use should also be considered. Logging would threaten plants not only through the use of machinery to cut and skid logs, but through the changes in shade, drainage, and erosion rates. Farming on adjacent uplands can result in increased rates of soil erosion or slump. Human activities can affect water quality, groundwater flowage, and surface water flood frequency. Many of these are discussed in the stewardship abstract on Aconitum noveboracense.

The threats to this species in Alberta where most of it's range is, are very high due to oil and gas exploration, land clearing and other development activities (pers. comm. Joyce Gould).

Short-term Trend Comments: The trend of this species is unknown.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Delicate habitat (at U.S. sites, at least) could be damaged by human disturbance.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Disjunct in the United States in Iowa and Minnesota. More widespread in Canada: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchawan, Manitoba, and District of Mackenzie (N.W.T.).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, MN
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Clayton (19043), Delaware (19055), Dubuque (19061), Fayette (19065), Howard (19089), Jackson (19097), Winneshiek (19191)
MN Fillmore (27045), Houston (27055)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with erect flowering stems, 3-15 cm tall, arising from the tips of the previous year's stolons. Terminal clusters of golden-yellow flowers bloom from May to July, with the timing of maximum flower production dependent on temperature.
Ecology Comments:

Rosendahl (1947) has noted that C. iowense does not develop flowering stems the first season, but produces instead a number of radical leaves and stolons. If these stolons continue to grow at or close below the soil surface, they bear a variable number of vegetative stems, but if they penetrate deeper the leaves are reduced to sheathing the colorless portion of the petiole and a rudimentary lamina. Rosendahl (1947) also noted that each flowering stem was found to arise from the end of a stolon from the previous year. Smith (1981) notes that flowering is temperature dependent, with the maximum flower production on 11-12 degree C substrates. Webe (1978) noted that significant seed production has been observed only in the presence of insects.

Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: In the main part of its range in Canada, occurs on shady wet to moist streambanks and marshy ground in the montane zone. In the disjunct portion of the range in northeastern Iowa and southeastern Minnesota, occurs at sites whose cold microclimates resemble boreal areas. Specifically, plants here are found on steep, wet, mossy, north-facing talus slopes (often limestone) above streams that remain shaded and cool year-round. Many occurrences are associated with cold groundwater seeps or are located near ice caves where ice persists throughout the summer, creating cold air drafts that flow down the slope. These areas were not covered by glaciers during the last ice ages, when this and other boreal species were likely widespread throughout this region. Common associates at the disjunct U.S. sites include Abies balsamea, Acer spicatum, Adoxa moschatellina, Betula lutea, Carex media, Carex peckii, Circaea alpina, Cornus canadensis, Equisetum scirpoides, Linnaea borealis, Lycopodium spp., Maianthemum canadensis, Mertensia paniculata, Rhamnus alnifolia, Ribes hudsonianum, Taxus canadensis, Viburnum opulus var. americana (Morely 1978, Roosa and Eilers 1978).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview:

In order of priority: (1) Land protection agreements, (2) population monitoring, (3) research on reproductive biology, (4) further inventories, (5) artificial propagation efforts, (6) taxonomy.

Restoration Potential:

Population data is lacking, so it is not certain if populations are declining. The specific microhabitat requirements suggest that plants may not have been more abundant or widespread during historical times than present. There is reason to believe that land protection efforts coupled with research (below) will adequately protect plant.

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations:

Protect microsite, water source (springs or seeps), and surrounding area. Morley (1978) recommended protecting as much of adjacent forest as possible to reduce threat of logging of grazing. Smith (1981) notes that nearby residential development can be a threat. Pusateri (1983, pers. comm.) recommends efforts to reduce human use of area (trampling, etc.).

Management Requirements:

After land protection is secured, management should focus on fencing and maintaining fences to exclude cattle, neighbor contacts designed to minimize use of the area, population monitoring, and surveillance. Use of the area for field trips, educational or public relations purposes should be discouraged due to the fragile nature of the habitat.

Active management (i.e. management for woody species or exotics, etc.) is probably not necessary, but should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Artificial propagation and transplant efforts, to introduce or restore populations, have not been attempted.

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K. & J. Pearson (1998), rev. G. Thunhorst and J. Gould (10/96), L. Morse (1998, 2002), rev. G. Thunhorst (10/98); J.E. Evans (1984)
Management Information Edition Date: 29Jun1984
Management Information Edition Author: J.E. EVANS
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Jun1984
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): EVANS, J.E.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Breitung, A. (1957). Annotated catalogue of the vascular flora of Saskatchewan. Am. Midl. Nat., 58:1-72.

  • British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. Botany Program. 2000. Database containing records of rare plant collections and observations in the province of British Columbia.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Britton, N. L., and A. Brown. 1898. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY. New Era Printing Co. Lancaster, PA.

  • Britton, N.L. 1901. Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada. Henry Holt and Co., New York, NY.

  • Cody, W.J. 1988. Plants of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1818/E, Ottawa ON.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, editors. 2000. The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. Volume 5. Dicotyledons (Salicaceae through Zygophyllaceae) and Pteridophytes. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2000. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 5, Dicotyledons (Salicaceae through Zygophyllaceae) and Pteridophytes. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 389pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J.L. Penny. 2002. Rare native vascular plants of British Columbia. Second edition. March 2002. The Province of British Columbia, Victoria.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, and D. Meidinger, eds. 1998. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Conserv. Data Centre, Resour. Inventory Branch, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria.

  • Eilers, L.J., and D.M. Roosa. 1994. The vascular plants of Iowa: An annotated checklist and natural history. Univ. Iowa Press, Iowa City. 304 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hara, H. (1949). A note on Chrysosplenium iowense. Rhodora, 51:191-192.

  • Hartley, T.J. 1959. Flora of the Driftless Area. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Iowa, Ames, Iowa. 932 pp.

  • Holt, R.F., G. Utzig, M. Carver and J. Booth. 2003. Biodiversity Conservation in BC: An Assessment of Threats and Gaps. Unpublished report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Biodiversity Branch, Victoria, BC.

  • Huston, M. J. 1981. Iowa preserve selection and design project. Iowa Nat. Areas Inventory, Des Moines.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Morley, T. 1978. Site evaluation for Golden Saxifrage Seepage (18-25 June, 1978). Unpub. report to The Nature Consevancy, 5 pp.

  • Moss, E.H. 1994. Flora of Alberta. Second Edition revised by J.G. Packer. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

  • Nekola, J. C. 1990. Rare Iowa plant notes from the R. V. Drexler Herbarium. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 97(1):55-73.

  • Ownbey, G. B., and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 320 pp.

  • Ownbey, G.B. and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 307 pp.

  • Packer, J. G. 1963. The taxonomy of some North American species of Chrysosplenium L., section alternifolia Franchet. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 85-103.

  • Packer, J.G. 1963. The taxonomy of some North American species of Chrysosplenium L., section alternifolia Franchet. Can J. Bot., 41: 85-103.

  • Porsild, A.E. 1955. The vascular plants of the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 135. 266 p.

  • Robinson, B.L., and M.L. Fernald. 1908. Gray's New Manual of Botany (Seventh edition-Illustrated): A Handbook of the Flowering plants and Ferns of Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. American Book Co., New York, New York.

  • Roosa, D.M., and L.J. Eilers. 1978. Endangered and threatened Iowa vascular plants. Iowa State Preserves Advisory Board, Special Report No. 5. 93 pp.

  • Rose, J.N. (1897). Preliminary revision to the North American species of Chrysosplenium Botan. Gazette, 23:274-277.

  • Rosendahl, C. O. 1947. Studies in Chrysosplenium with special reference to the taxonomic status and distribution of C. iowense. Rhodora 49(578):25-35.

  • Rosendahl, C.O. (1905). Die nordamerikanischen saxifraginae und Verwandtschafts-Verhaltnisse in Beziehung zu ihrer geographischen verbreitung. Beilb. Botan. Jahrb. 37: 83. Chrysosplenium, 85-87.

  • Rosendahl, C.O. 1947. Studies in Chrysosplenium with special reference to the taxonomic status and distribution of C. iowense. Rhodora 49(578): 25-35.

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  • Smith, W.R. (1981). Status report: Chrysosplenium iowense Rydb., Minnesota Heritage Program, 4 pp.

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  • Watson, S., and J. Coulter. 1890. Gray's Manual of Botany, 6th ed. Iverson and Blakeman Co., NY.

  • Weber, M. (1978). Reproduction if Chrysosplenium iowense. Eleventh Ann. Mtn. Mississippi River Research Consortium, Univ. Wisconsin-LaCrosse, LaCrosse.

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