Chrosomus eos - Cope, 1862
Northern Redbelly Dace
Synonym(s): Phoxinus eos (Cope, 1862)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Phoxinus eos (Cope, 1861) (TSN 163592)
French Common Names: ventre rouge du nord
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104770
Element Code: AFCJB31020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Chrosomus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Phoxinus eos
Taxonomic Comments: Hybridizes with C. neogaeus (Das and Nelson 1989); hybrids between C. eos and C. neogaeus comprise diploid, triploid, and diploid-triploid mosaic unisexuals; diploids are products of clonal reproduction (Dawley et al. 1987). Aclonal reproduction by polyploids also occurs (Copeia 1993:650-660).

This species formerly was included in the genus Phoxinus. Based on patterns of genetic variation, Strange and Mayden (2009) reassigned all North American Phoxinus species to the genus Chrosomus.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 17Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S1), Maine (S4), Massachusetts (S1), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S3), Nebraska (S2), New Hampshire (S3), New York (S4), North Dakota (S4), Pennsylvania (S1), South Dakota (S2), Vermont (S4), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Alberta (S3), British Columbia (S3), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Northwest Territories (S4), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S2), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S3S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes Atlantic, Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Peace-Mackenzie river drainages, from Nova Scotia west to Northwest Territories and British Columbia, and south to northern Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Nebraska, with an isolated population in the South Platte river system, Colorado (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This fish is common in most of its range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats exist over most of the range. Southern-most population in Colorado has been reduced by stream channelization, reductions in discharge, and changes in water quality; it is now threatened by continued urban development (Bestgen 1989).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes Atlantic, Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Peace-Mackenzie river drainages, from Nova Scotia west to Northwest Territories and British Columbia, and south to northern Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Nebraska, with an isolated population in the South Platte river system, Colorado (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, MA, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NH, NY, PA, SD, VT, WI
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Boulder (08013)*, Douglas (08035), Weld (08123)*
MA Franklin (25011)
MT Blaine (30005), Cascade (30013), Chouteau (30015), Daniels (30019), Dawson (30021), Fergus (30027), Garfield (30033), Golden Valley (30037), Hill (30041), Judith Basin (30045), Lewis and Clark (30049), McCone (30055), Meagher (30059), Musselshell (30065), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Pondera (30073), Richland (30083), Roosevelt (30085), Sheridan (30091), Stillwater (30095), Sweet Grass (30097), Teton (30099), Toole (30101), Valley (30105), Wheatland (30107), Wibaux (30109)
ND Billings (38007), Burleigh (38015), Cass (38017)*, Dunn (38025), Grand Forks (38035), Grant (38037)*, McLean (38055), Mercer (38057), Morton (38059)*, Pembina (38067)*, Ransom (38073)*, Richland (38077)*, Slope (38087), Stark (38089), Traill (38097)*, Walsh (38099)*, Williams (38105)*
NE Brown (31017), Cherry (31031), Custer (31041), Hooker (31091), Keith (31101), Keya Paha (31103), Knox (31107)*, Lincoln (31111), Logan (31113), Rock (31149), Sheridan (31161), Sioux (31165), Wheeler (31183)*
NH Cheshire (33005), Coos (33007), Sullivan (33019)
PA Erie (42049), Susquehanna (42115)*, Warren (42123)
SD Bennett (46007), Brookings (46011)*, Brule (46015)*, Buffalo (46017)*, Corson (46031), Deuel (46039), Grant (46051)*, Lyman (46085)*, Todd (46121), Tripp (46123), Walworth (46129)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001), Allagash (01010002), Fish (01010003), Aroostook (01010004), Meduxnekeag (01010005), West Branch Penobscot (01020001), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Mattawamkeag (01020003), Lower Penobscot (01020005), Upper Kennebec (01030001), Upper Androscoggin (01040001), Lower Androscoggin (01040002), St. Croix (01050001), Maine Coastal (01050002), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002), Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Waits (01080103), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), White (01080105), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106), Deerfield (01080203)+, St. Francois (01110000)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)*, Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103)*, Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), Kalamazoo (04050003), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), St. Marys (04070001), Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Flint (04080204), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Black (04150101)*, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002), French (05010004)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Crow Wing (07010106), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Le Sueur (07020011), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Sugar (07090004), Upper Fox (07120006)
09 Elm-Marsh (09020107)+, Goose (09020109)+*, Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+, Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Turtle (09020307)+, Forest (09020308), Snake (09020309), Park (09020310)+, Lower Pembina River (09020316)+*, Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Vermilion (09030002), Rainy Lake (09030003), Upper Rainy (09030004), Rapid (09030007), Lower Rainy (09030008), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Gallatin (10020008), Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Sun (10030104)+, Belt (10030105)+, Two Medicine (10030201)+, Cut Bank (10030202), Marias (10030203)+, Willow (10030204)+, Teton (10030205)+, Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101)+, Arrow (10040102)+, Judith (10040103)+, Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Big Dry (10040105)+, Upper Musselshell (10040201)+, Middle Musselshell (10040202)+, Flatwillow (10040203)+, Box Elder (10040204)+, Lower Musselshell (10040205)+, Upper Milk (10050002)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Big Sandy (10050005)+, Sage (10050006)+, Lodge (10050007)+, Battle (10050008)+, Peoples (10050009)+, Cottonwood (10050010)+, Whitewater (10050011)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Frenchman (10050013)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Rock (10050015)+, Porcupine (10050016)+, Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001)+, Redwater (10060002)+, Poplar (10060003)+, West Fork Poplar (10060004)+, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Brush Lake closed basin (10060007), Upper Yellowstone (10070002)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, Lake Sakakawea (10110101)+*, Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101)+, Upper Lake Oahe (10130102)+, Apple (10130103)+, Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Knife (10130201)+, Upper Heart (10130202)+, Lower Heart (10130203)+*, Upper Cannonball (10130204)+, Grand (10130303)+, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+*, Crow (10140105)+*, Little White (10140203)+, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Snake (10150005)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Lower North Platte (10180014)+, Upper South Platte (10190002)+, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+*, St. Vrain (10190005)+*, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+*, Lone Tree-Owl (10190008)+*, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Dismal (10210002)+, South Loup (10210004)+, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Lower North Loup (10210007), Loup (10210009)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Reproduction Comments: Spawns late May-early August under normal conditions throughout the Great Lakes region; eggs hatch in about 8-10 days at 21-27 C; first spawns at age I or II (Becker 1983, Faber 1985). Spawns mid-June to mid-August in Clear Lake, Ontario; fractional spawner (Can. Field-Nat. 106:237-240).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes boggy lakes, ponds; beaver ponds, and pools of headwaters and creeks; this fish is often in tea colored water over fine detritus or silt; usually near vegetation (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). Spawning occurs among mats of filamentous algae or aquatic plants (Faber 1985).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly diatoms and filamentous algae, also zooplankton and aquatic insects.
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Nov2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Nov2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bestgen, K. R. 1989. Distribution and notes on the biology of Phoxinus eos (Cyprinidae) in Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 34:225-231.

  • Das, M. K., and J. S. Nelson. 1989. Hybridization between northern redbelly dace (PHOXINUS EOS) and finescale dace (PHOXINUS NEOGAEUS) (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae) in Alberta. Can. J. Zool. 67:579-584.

  • Dawley, R. M., R. J. Schultz, and K. A. Goddard. 1987. Clonal reproduction and polyploidy in unisexual hybrids of PHOXINUS EOS and PHOXINUS NEOGAEUS (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1987:275-283.

  • Duncan, J.R. 1994. An updated list of the fishes of Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 56: 160-165.

  • Faber, D. J. 1985. The early development of the northern redbelly dace, Phoxinus eos (Cope). Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:1724- 1729.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • McCulloch, B.R., J.R. Duncan, and R.J. Keith. 1993. Fish survey of the Saskatchewan portion of the Missouri River Basin. Report to Saskatchewan Environment, Regina, SK. 15 pp.

  • NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version4.7. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. Available at

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Powles, P.M., S. Finucan, M. van Haaften, and R.A. Curry. 1992. Preliminary evidence for fractional spawning by northern redbelly dace, Phoxinus eos. Canadian Field Naturalist 106(2): 237-240

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Strange, R. M., and R. L. Mayden. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships and a revised taxonomy for North American cyprinds currently assigned to Phoxinus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae). Copeia 2009:494-501.

  • Sylvester, R.M. 2004. Upper Missouri River basin aquatic gap fish distribution model accuracy assessment and White Sucker, Catostomus commersonii, population characteristics in the upper Missouri River basin. M.Sc. Thesis. South Dakota State University. 182pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stone, J., B. C. Lê, and J. R. Moring. 2001. Freshwater fishes of Acadia National Park, Mount Desert Island, Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 8(3):311-318.

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