Chloroceryle americana - (Gmelin, 1788)
Green Kingfisher
Other Common Names: Martim-Pescador-Pequeno
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin, 1788) (TSN 178112)
French Common Names: Martin-pęcheur vert
Spanish Common Names: Martín-Pescador Verde, Martín Pescador Chico
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100200
Element Code: ABNXD02020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 11194

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Chloroceryle
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chloroceryle americana
Taxonomic Comments: See Fry and Fry (1992) for a brief summary of the characteristics of the five subspecies.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Dec1996
Global Status Last Changed: 02Dec1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (19Mar1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S2), Texas (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Resident from northern Mexico and central Texas south through Central America, Trinidad, and Tobago to South America (northern Chile and the Mendoza and Buenos Aires regions of central Argentina). Rare straggler in southern Arizona in winter (NGS 1983). To 1500 m in Colombia, 2500 m in Costa Rica, and 2800 m in Mexico (Fry and Fry 1992). See Fry and Fry (1992) for information on the ranges of the five subspecies.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Resident from northern Mexico and central Texas south through Central America, Trinidad, and Tobago to South America (northern Chile and the Mendoza and Buenos Aires regions of central Argentina). Rare straggler in southern Arizona in winter (NGS 1983). To 1500 m in Colombia, 2500 m in Costa Rica, and 2800 m in Mexico (Fry and Fry 1992). See Fry and Fry (1992) for information on the ranges of the five subspecies.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2005; WWF-US, 2000


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Cochise (04003), Mohave (04015), Pima (04019), Santa Cruz (04023)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Havasu-Mohave Lakes (15030101)+, Sacramento Wash (15030103)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Brawley Wash (15050304)+, Whitewater Draw (15080301)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Known egg laying months include April in Texas and Costa Rica, March and probably January to May in Mexico, November-February in Panama, November in Argentina (Fry and Fry 1992). Clutch size is 3-6 (commonly 5). Incubation, by both sexes (female at night, alternating in daytime), lasts 19-21 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 22-26 days (also reported as 27 days), independent after additional 4 weeks.
Ecology Comments: Usually solitary or in pairs. Strongly territorial.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): Lagoon, Scrub-shrub wetland
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Almost all open freshwater and brackish habitats; shaded rivulets, muddy puddles in dried-out arroyos, deep turbid rivers, flooded scrub forest, dark pools in evergreen forest, coastal lagoons, coastal lagoons, mangroves, marshes, small rocky watercourses, and choked drainage canals (Fry and Fry 1992). Streams, rivers, lakes, marshes, swamps, mangroves, and rarely rocky seacoasts (AOU 1983). Colombia: fairly common along medium-sized to small streams and edges of lakes and ponds bordered by shrubs and trees; usually not along streams with closed canopy overhead; also mangroves and small numbers along bouldery mountain streams (Hilty and Brown 1986). In Colombia and Bolivia, frequents primarily open habitat along the edges of lakes and streams (Remson 1990). Nests in horizontal burrow dug in bank of stream; entrance usually well hidden and near top of bank.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Eats small fishes, crustaceans, and insects (including dragonfly nymphs, bugs, ants, and other Hymenoptera) (Fry and Fry 1992), generally obtained by plunging into water from low perch (Terres 1980) or after hovering. Concentrates dives in the first 2 meters from shoreline (Remson 1990).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 22 centimeters
Weight: 38 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Kingfishers

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance based on the territories and foraging ranges of the Belted Kingfisher. Foraging in that species is usually within 1.6 km of nest, up to 8 km (Cornwell 1963). Lakeside territories average 0.8 km of shoreline, up to 2.4 km; river territories average 2.4 to 4.8 km of river length (Salyer and Lagler 1946).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .8 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on an average lakeside territory of Belted Kingfisher (Salyer and Lagler 1946).
Date: 13Nov2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Bent, A.C. 1940. Life histories of North American cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds, and their allies. Part I. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 176. 244 pp.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Braun, M. J., D. W. Finch, M. B. Robbins, and B. K. Schmidt. 2000. A field checklist of the birds of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

  • Cornwell, G. W. 1963. Observation on the breeding biology and behavior of a nesting population of belted kingfishers. Condor 65:426-431.

  • Forshaw, J. M., and W. T. Cooper. 1983. Kingfishers and related birds. Vol. 1. Alcedinidae, Ceryle to Cittura. Landsdowne Editions, Sydney.

  • Fry, C. H., and K. Fry. 1992. Kingfishers, bee-eaters & rollers: a handbook. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 324 pp. [344 pp.?]

  • Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.

  • Hilty, S.L. and W. L. Brown. 1986. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA. 836 pp.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Poole, A. F. and F. B. Gill. 1992. The birds of North America. The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Remson, J. V. 1990. Community ecology of neotropical kingfishers. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 124.

  • Ridgely, R. S. 2002. Distribution maps of South American birds. Unpublished.

  • Ridgely, R. S. and J. A. Gwynne, Jr. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of Panama. 2nd edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

  • Salyer, J. C., II, and K. F. Lagler. 1946. The eastern belted kingfisher, MEGACERYLE ALCYON ALCYON (Linneaus), in relation to fish management. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 76:97-117.

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.

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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

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