Chimaphila maculata - (Linnaeus) Pursh
Spotted Wintergreen
Other English Common Names: Striped Pipsissewa, Striped Prince's-pine, Striped Wintergreen
Other Common Names: striped prince's pine
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh (TSN 23767)
French Common Names: chimaphile maculée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135558
Element Code: PDPYR01010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ericales Pyrolaceae Chimaphila
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chimaphila maculata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 29Feb1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Chimpahila maculata grows from Ontario and Quebec south through Florida and Mississippi and into Costa Rica. Another center ranges from Mexico south into Guatemala and Honduras. This slow growing perennial tends to grow in undisturbed habitats in leaf and needle mulch and on decomposing logs. This species is vulnerable to soil disturbance, moderate to high intensity fires, and logging. The leaves of a related species, Chimaphila umbellata are wild-collected for commercial use; however collection pressures on Chimaphila maculata, if any, are minor.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (04Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arizona (S3?), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S3), Kentucky (S5), Maine (S2), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Mississippi (S2), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S5), New York (S4), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Vermont (S3), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5)
Canada Ontario (S2), Quebec (SX)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (28Apr2017)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This low-growing perennial plant is restricted to sandy soils in southern Ontario. Since the last assessment, this species has been found at two new sites and lost at two others. The overall population has remained fairly stable but the five subpopulations are under threat from recreational activities and the possibility of wildfire.

Status history: Designated Endangered in April 1987. Status re?examined and confirmed Endangered in April 1998 and in May 2000. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in April 2017.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Chimpahila maculata grows from Ontario and Quebec south through Florida and Mississippi and into Costa Rico. Another center ranges from Mexico south into Guatemala and Honduras.

Population Size Comments: Abundance varies throughout its range, tending to be more common to the south. This species is endangered in Maine (pers. comm. D. Cameron, October 2000). Common to occasional in Kentucky (pers. comm. D. White October, 2000). Common and widespread in South Carolina (pers. comm. J. Nelson, October 2000). Very abundant in the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests (pers. comm. G. Kauffman, November 2000).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Chimaphila maculata requires an organic litter layer of needles or leaves and grows best in rich, undisturbed soils (Moore 1978). Therefore, any activities resulting in soil disturbance or soil compaction - even walking - can be a threat. Similarly, logging would be detrimental for this shade-loving plant.

Although its conspecific, C. umbellata, which grows in the Pacific Northwest, is collected for medicinal purposes, there is probably little commercial demand for C. maculata (pers. com. M. McGuffin, December 2000). However, some experts in the medicinal plant industry have suggested that demand has increased over the past ten years (Robbins 1999). Minor levels of collecting (permits for 100 lbs annually) have been reported in the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests (pers. com. G. Kauffman, November 2000).

Short-term Trend Comments: Apparently relatively stable; no population inventories reporting major decline; however some experts in the medicinal plant industry have suggested that population and species have declined over the past ten years (Robbins 1999).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Chimpahila maculata grows from Ontario and Quebec south through Florida and Mississippi and into Costa Rico. Another center ranges from Mexico south into Guatemala and Honduras.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AZ, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Canada ON, QCextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IL Cook (17031)*, Hardin (17069), Pope (17151)
IN Jefferson (18077), La Porte (18091), Starke (18149)
ME Cumberland (23005), Franklin (23007), Oxford (23017)*, Sagadahoc (23023), Somerset (23025), York (23031)
MS Benton (28009), Itawamba (28057), Monroe (28095), Prentiss (28117), Tishomingo (28141)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Kennebec (01030003)+, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+, Presumpscot (01060001)+, Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+
03 Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Buttahatchee (03160103)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+
05 Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Saline (05140204)+
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+
07 Kankakee (07120001)+, Chicago (07120003)+*
08 Wolf (08010210)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Subshrubs, 1-5.3 dm tall.
General Description: Chimaphila maculata is a perennial with whorls of lance-shaped leaves that have broadly white-marked midribs. Flowers (June to August) are whitish pink and the plant grows 4-10 inches tall (Foster and Duke 1990).
Ecology Comments: All three Chimaphila species are slow-growing and slow-propagating plants (Moore 1978). C. maculata tends to propagate from rhizomes, but is difficult from seed.
Habitat Comments: This species is seldom seen on roadsides and forest edges, but is likely to grow in leaf and needle mulch in moist forests (Moore 1979).

Found in the Flora Neotropica area on shady slopes in Pinus, Pinus-Quercus, Pinus-Quercus-Liquidambar, Abies, Pinus-Abies, Quercus, or Quercus-bamboo forest at elevations of (500-) 1000-3400 m. Also in northern Mexico and southern Arizona, and widespread in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada.

Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Miller, Tim, TNC-HQ (1996), rev. L. Morse (2001); rev. K. McConnell (2001)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Bowles, M.L., et al. 1991. Rarely seen endangered plants, rediscoveries, and species new to Illinois. Erigenia 11:27-51.

  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2017. COSEWIC Assessment Results, April 2017. Online. Available: http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Foster, S., and J. Duke. 1990. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants- Eastern and Central North America. Peterson Field Guides Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 366 pp.

  • Hartley, K. 2002. Recovery strategy for spotted wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh). draft. 25 pp.

  • Hodgdon, A.R., and L.M. Eastman. 1973. Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh in Maine and New Hampshire. Rhodora 75: 162-165.

  • Jones, S.M. and J.S. Fralish. 1974. A state record for CHIMAPHILA MACULATA (L.) Pursh. in Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 67:441.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kearney, T.H., R.H. Peebles, and collaborators. 1951. Arizona flora. 2nd edition with Supplement (1960) by J.T. Howell, E. McClintock, and collaborators. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1085 pp.

  • Kirk, D.A. 1986. Status Report on Spotted Wintergreen, Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Committee on the Status of Endangered Widlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 32 pp.

  • Kirk, D.A. 1987. Status report on Spotted Wintergreen CHIMAPHILA MACULATA (L.) Pursh.. Unpublished Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) report, Ottawa, Ontario. 31 pp.

  • Luteyn, J.L. 1995. Ericaceae part II: The superior-ovaried genera. Flora Neotropica monograph 66: 1-560. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.

  • Martin, P.S., D. Yetman, M. Fishbein, P. Jenkins, T.R. Van Devender, and R.K. Wilson. 1998. Gentry's Rio Mayo plants; The tropical deciduous forest & environs of northwest Mexico. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 558 pp. + map.

  • Moore, M. 1979. Medicinal plants of the mountain west. Museum of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1997. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E Species Evaluation Form for Spotted Wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata). Unpublished report prepared by Natural Heritage Information Centre for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 4 pp + appendix.

  • Robbins, C. 1999. Medicine from US wildlands: An assessment of native plant species harvested in the United States for medicinal use and trade and evaluation of the conservation and management implications. Traffic North America. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. Available at http://www.nps.gov/plants/medicinal/.

  • Standley, L.A., S.S.-H. Kim, and I.M. Hjersted. 1988. Reproductive biology of two sympatric species of Chimaphila. Rhodora 90(863): 233-244.

  • Sutherland, D.A. 1987. The Vascular Plants of Haldimand-Norfolk. Pages 1-52 in The Natural Areas Inventory of the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk - Volume II: Annotated Checklists. Norfolk Field Naturalists, Simcoe, Ontario.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Thompson, Melinda J. 2001. Endangered Species Habitat Mapping for the purposes of the Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program: Spotted Wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata (L) Pursh.). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Guelph District. 13 pp.

  • White, D. J. 1998. Update COSEWIC status report on spotted wintergreen Chimaphila maculata in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-6 pp.

  • White, D.J. 1998. Update Status Report for Spotted Wintergreen (CHIMAPHILA MACULATA). Plants Subcommittee, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 5 pp.

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