Anser canagicus - (Sewastianoff, 1802)
Emperor Goose
Synonym(s): Chen canagica (Sewastianoff, 1802)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chen canagica (Sevastianov, 1802) (TSN 175042)
French Common Names: Oie empereur
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103792
Element Code: ABNJB04030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Anser
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chen canagica
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly placed in the genus Chen, but phylogenomic data indicate that Anser is paraphyletic if Chen is treated as a separate genus (Ottenburghs et al. 2016) (AOU 2017). Placed in monotypic genus Philacte by AOU (1983).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 01Jun2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Restricted range mostly in Alaska; significant decline in population 1964-1986, followed by stabilization or slight recovery; vulnerable to oil polluition; population may be limited by subsistence harvest; climate change could result in major loss of nesting habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4B,N3N4N (05Jan1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S3S4), Washington (SNA)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: NT - Near threatened

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: More than 90 percent total breeding population is concentrated In the eastern Bering Sea region along the coast of western Alaska (Kuskokwim Bay to Kotzebue Sound), with additional nesting on St. Lawrence and Nunivak islands, and small numbers in eastern Asia, principally in the Anaydr lowlands and southern Chukotka (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977; E. Syroechkovskiy Jr., pers. comm.). In winter, most of the population is in the Aleutian Islands, but the range extends eastward along the southern side of the Alaskan Peninsula and to the Kodiak Island Archipelago, and small numbers winter in eastern Asia, primarily in the Commander Islands. The species winters irregularly southward along the North American Pacific coast to California and in eastern Asia to Kamchatka, casually in Hawaii. Geese breeding in Siberia evidently winter and migrate with Alaskan breeding birds (Schmutz and Kondratyev 1995). Most of the global population spends spring and fall staging periods on the Alaska Peninsula (Nelson Lagoon having the greatest number). Major staging areas include the northern sides of the Alaska Peninsula and Bristol Bay, and shallow bays and lagoons near Cape Newenham and Kuskokwim Bay (AOU 1983, Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977).

Coded range extent refers to breeding range.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Occurrences have not been defined using standardized criteria, but this species appears to be represented by several distinct subpopulations.

Population Size: 10,000 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: In some years as many as 35,000 nesting pairs occur on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska (Fischer et al. 2005).

Since 1981, emperor geese have been surveyed annually on spring staging areas in southwestern Alaska. The 2008 emperor goose survey estimate was 64,900 (USFWS 2008).

Recent aerial surveys along the eastern coast of Russia indicated a minimum of 3,000-5,000 individuals, with very few of these breeding (only 127 broods were seen) (J. I. Hodges, cited by Schmutz and Kondratyev 1995).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Subsistence hunting takes 5% of birds (1993 ICBP meeting) and spring hunting may be a limiting factor: "It is possible that subsistence harvest has been reduced enough to stop the population decline, but not enough to allow a population increase" (Petersen et al. 1994).

Emperor geese nesting in Alaska appear not to be greatly affected by increased fox predation observed on brant and cackling geese (USFWS 2008).

The species is vulnerable to oil pollution due to its restricted range and relatively small population size; major breeding and wintering areas are within sedimentary basins having high potential for oil development; probably these geese are most vulnerable when concentrated on wintering areas on the southern side of the Alaska Peninsula (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977).

Modeling indicates that 54% of the habitat for this species could be lost by 2070 (Zöckler and Lysenko 2000).

Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick (1977) stated that human disturbance of nests probably leads to significant egg losses to predators, but Petersen et al. (1994) state that "during pre-egg laying and incubation, pairs are little disturbed by people walking through the area or airplanes flying overhead."

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Since 1981, emperor geese have been surveyed annually on spring staging areas in southwestern Alaska (USFWS 2008). These estimates increased an average of 1% per year during 1999-2008 (P = 0.607), but this relatively stable trend masks considerable year-to-year variation. Aerial surveys during the YKD coastal survey in 2008 indicated slight decreases in the number of pairs and total birds from 2007 levels but a long-term increasing trend in both indices is still apparent. Nesting surveys conducted on the YKD during 2008 indicated clutch sizes were near average (USFWS 2008).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: In Alaska, the population declined from about 139,000 in 1964 to 101,000 in 1982, with subsequent fluctuations between around 40,000-85,000 (USFWS 2008).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Spring populations on the Alaska population should continue to be monitored.

Protection Needs: Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick (1977) listed the following management steps that should be considered: (1) give wildlife refuges jurisdiction over their offshore areas to regulate use for oil operations, (2) discourage tanker traffic within the range of this species, (3) develop methods to contain oil spills, (4) encourage hunters to honor regulations through increased law enforcement and education, (5) encourage and assist native corporations to secure wildlife resources for posterity by appropriate management.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) More than 90 percent total breeding population is concentrated In the eastern Bering Sea region along the coast of western Alaska (Kuskokwim Bay to Kotzebue Sound), with additional nesting on St. Lawrence and Nunivak islands, and small numbers in eastern Asia, principally in the Anaydr lowlands and southern Chukotka (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977; E. Syroechkovskiy Jr., pers. comm.). In winter, most of the population is in the Aleutian Islands, but the range extends eastward along the southern side of the Alaskan Peninsula and to the Kodiak Island Archipelago, and small numbers winter in eastern Asia, primarily in the Commander Islands. The species winters irregularly southward along the North American Pacific coast to California and in eastern Asia to Kamchatka, casually in Hawaii. Geese breeding in Siberia evidently winter and migrate with Alaskan breeding birds (Schmutz and Kondratyev 1995). Most of the global population spends spring and fall staging periods on the Alaska Peninsula (Nelson Lagoon having the greatest number). Major staging areas include the northern sides of the Alaska Peninsula and Bristol Bay, and shallow bays and lagoons near Cape Newenham and Kuskokwim Bay (AOU 1983, Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977).

Coded range extent refers to breeding range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, WA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Aleutians East (02013), Bethel (CA) (02050), Kodiak Island (02150), Lake and Peninsula (02164), Nome (CA) (02180), Northwest Arctic (02188), Wade Hampton (CA) (02270)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
19 Shelikof Straight (19020702)+, Cold Bay (19030101)+, Fox Islands (19030102)+, Port Heiden (19030201)+, Ugashik Bay (19030202)+, Egegik Bay (19030203)+, Togiak (19030305)+, Kuskokwim Delta (19030502)+, Nunavak-St. Matthew Islands (19030503)+, Yukon Delta (19040805)+, Shishmaref (19050201)+, Goodhope-Spafarief Bay (19050202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A large waterfowl.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 3-8 (usually 5-6) eggs, laid generally by the second week of June, as early as late May if weather mild; median date for nest initiation is late May-early June (Petersen 1992). Incubation, by female with male nearby, lasts 24-25 days. Young first fly in early August, remain with parents until following spring. Severe weather and snow may delay nesting activity. Length of nesting season was 46-59 days over 3-year period in Alaska (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977). Large proportion of adult females do not nest each year (Petersen 1992). Nesting is dispersed or semicolonial. In Alaska, nesting density in one study area varied from 18-27 per sq km over 2 years; highests density was 59 nests per sq, km in lowland pingo tundra (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977).
Ecology Comments: Emperor geese may form large flocks during molt (Soothill and Whitehead 1978).

Goslings are subject to predation by glaucous gulls until families amalgamate and increased numbers provide greater safety (Soothill and Whitehead 1978, Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977). Human harvest near villages is a locally significant mortality factor; predation and adverse weather are important mortality factors in fall staging and wintering areas (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977). Annual survival rate of adult females varied from 44 to 69% over four years (Condor 94:398-406).

Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Geese in the western Aleutians start spring migration in early March. A month later most have arrived at the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula. As bays clear of ice, birds move eastward; by mid-April, they have crossed Bristol Bay and begin to arrive on southern shore of Kuskokwim Bay, arriving on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in early and mid-May. Geese remain at food-rich spring staging areas until nest sites are available. In nesting areas on the Seward Peninsula and in Siberia, this species may not arrive until late May or early June.

Migrating nonbreeders leave or pass through nesting grounds in late June or early July, presumably on their way to St. Lawrence Island (molting area). Fall migration begins in late August or September depending on the part of summer range occupied; nonbreeders probably depart before family groups; by September or October, geese arrive on bays on the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and move westward and southward into islands from then until late November (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977).

Most Emperor Geese that fail to incubate migrate in early June from the YKD to northern Chukotka in eastern Russia where they then molt their flight feathers. In some years, the number of geese undergoing this migration likely exceeds 50,000, and perhaps substantially more (Hupp et al., unpublished). The flight trajectory of geese migrating to Chukotka is directly through or over St. Lawrence Island. Data to document the timing and route of a return migration in late summer or early fall do not exist, but preliminary subsistence harvest figures from St. Lawrence Island suggest they likely fly through again at that time (T. Rothe, pers. comm.).

Very limited banding data suggests that Russian breeders migrate to fall staging and wintering areas in western Alaska (Schmutz and Kondratyev 1995).

Whereas all telemetry data for breeders on the YKD indicate that geese fly east to west to get to wintering areas, incidental observations from the Kamchatka Peninsula and the western Aleutian Islands indicate that some geese move west to east at the beginning of winter (V. Byrd and E. Syroechkovskiy, pers. comm.).

Emperor geese may form large flocks during migration.

Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune, Tundra
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding habitat includes salt-water areas along reefs, rocky beaches, and cliff shores. Roosting may occur on beaches and dunes adjacent to intertidal areas (Petrinovich and Patterson 1983). Ice-free coasts are used in winter.

Nesting occurs in lowland marsh areas of Arctic tundra, generally not far from the coast, on edges of ponds, lakes, and potholes (AOU 1983), also on shore (e.g., among driftwood) or on low coastal or estuarine islands (Harrison 1978). Some nest sites are used in successive years, occasionally by the same female (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977). Typical brood rearing areas in Alaska (Kokechik River area) included insides of bends of major sloughs and rivers that supported stands of Carex rariflora (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977). On the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, goslings left inland sites within one week of hatching and selected vegetated mudflats in coastal salt marsh (Laing and Raveling 1993).

Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet includes eelgrass, marine algae, grasses, and sedges; berries when available; animal food includes mollusks and crustaceans. Foraging occurs on beaches, mud flats, in marshes, and tundra. In fall on the Alaska Peninsula, geese foraged on intertidal invertebrates in blue mussel beds or on beach pea or seabeach sandwort in vegetated habitats, the latter when mussel beds were unavailable due to tidal inundation; sometimes they foraged on clams in mud/sand habitats (Schmutz 1994).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: In fall on the Alaska Peninsula, most fed during low tides and roosted during high tides, but flocks with disproportionately more juveniles continued to feed during high tides (Schmutz 1994).
Length: 66 centimeters
Weight: 2750 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Swans and Geese

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Map Foraging Areas in separate polygons from the nest site if they are separated from the nest by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas and foraging areas used during the nesting season, but the separation distance is based on nesting-area polygons. Thus different occurrences may overlap if birds from different nesting areas travel to the same foraging area during the nesting season. The separation distance is arbitrary but is intended to yield occurrences that are not impracticably large for conservation purposes.

Canada Geese usually forage near nest site, but adults will forage up to 8 kilometers away (Williams and Sooter 1941, Hammond and Mann 1956) and young will occasionally travel up to 16 kilometers to a foraging area as well (Palmer 1976). Mean home ranges of brood-rearing Snow Geese ranged from 6.6 to 21.7 square kilometers on Bylot Island (Hughes et al. 1994).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on the conservative, smaller mean home range for Snow Geese of 6.6 square kilometers (Hughes et al. 1994).
Date: 26Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S. and G. Hammerson
Notes: Contains all species of swans and geese, as well as whistling-ducks.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Some swans - Cygnus buccinator, in particular - have known migratory routes and staging areas. For these, evidence of past or present recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks and potential recurring presence at a given location. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season and habitat; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set to yield occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes.
Date: 07Aug2017
Author: Ormes, M.
Notes: Created at request of NE; needs review by zoologist.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging area, Roosting site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of past or present recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds, including nonbreeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season, and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 50 birds occur regularly for at least 20 days per year would be deemed EOs.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set to yield occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations. Swans and geese can travel considerable distances on a daily basis; in winter, flocks of Canada Geese foraged up to 48 km from roost in Texas (Glazener 1946).
Date: 26Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Notes: Contains all species of swans and geese, as well as whistling-ducks.

Use Class: Wintering site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Overlaps with Nonbreeding LUC, but some swans - Cygnus buccinator in particular - have distinct wintering and staging areas. For these, evidence of past or present recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds, and potential recurring presence at a given location. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season and habitat; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Date: 07Aug2017
Author: Ormes, M.
Notes: Created at request of NE; needs review by zoologist.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Dec2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Dec2008

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 134:751-773.

  • Carboneras, C. 1992f. Family Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans). Pages 536-628 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal (Eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain.

  • Carter, M., C. Hunter, D. Pashley, and D. Petit. 1998. The Watch List. Bird Conservation, Summer 1998:10.

  • Carter, M., G. Fenwick, C. Hunter, D. Pashley, D. Petit, J. Price, and J. Trapp. 1996. Watchlist 1996: For the future. Field Notes 50(3):238-240.

  • Eisenhauer, D. I., and C. M. Kirkpatrick. 1977. Ecology of the emperor goose in Alaska. Wildl. Monogr. No. 57:1-62.

  • Fischer, J. B, R. A. Stehn, T. D. Bowman, and G. Walters. 2005. Nest population size and potential production of geese and spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2005. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service report, Anchorage, AK, 28 pp.

  • Glazener, W. C. 1946. Food habits of wild geese on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 10:322-329.

  • Hammond, M. C., and G. E. Mann. 1956. Waterfowl nesting islands. Journal of Wildlife Management 20:345-352.

  • Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Hughes, R. J., A. Reed, and G. Gauthier. 1994. Space and habitat use by Greater Snoow Goose broods on Bylot Island, Northwest Territories. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:536-545.

  • Laing, K. K., and D. G. Raveling. 1993. Habitat and food selection by emperor goose goslings. Condor 95:879-888.

  • Livezey, B. C. 1986. A phylogenetic analysis of recent Anseriform genera using morphological characters. Auk 103:737-754.

  • Palmer, R. S., editor. 1976. Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 2. Waterfowl (first part). Whistling ducks, swans, geese, sheld-ducks, dabbling ducks. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven. 521 pp.

  • Petersen, M. R. 1990. Nest-site selection by emperor geese and cackling Canada geese. Wilson Bull. 102:413-426.

  • Petersen, M. R. 1992. Reproductive ecology of emperor geese: annual and individual variation in nesting. Condor 94:383-397.

  • Petersen, M. R., J. A. Schmutz, and R. F. Rockwell. 1994. Emperor Goose (CHEN CANAGICA). In A. Poole and F. Gill (editors). The birds of North America, No. 97. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. 20 pp.

  • Petrimoulx, H. J. 1983. The life history and distribution of the Roanoke bass Ambloplites cavifrons Cope, in Virginia. American Midland Naturalist 110:338-353.

  • Petrinovich, L., and T. L. Patterson. 1983. The white- crowned sparrow: reproductive success (1975-1980). Auk 100:811-825.

  • Poole, A. F. and F. B. Gill. 1992. The birds of North America. The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Pratt, H. D., P. L. Bruner, and D. G. Berrett. 1987. A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 409 pp. + 45 plates.

  • Schmutz, J. A. 1994. Age, habitat, and tide effects on feeding activity of emperor geese during autumn migration. Condor 96:46-51.

  • Schmutz, J. A., and A. V. Kondratyev. 1995. Evidence of emperor geese breeding in Russia and staging in Alaska. Auk 112:1037-1038.

  • Soothill, E., and P. Whitehead. 1978. Wildfowl of the world. Peerage Books, London.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Waterfowl population status, 2008. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. USA.

  • Williams, C. S., and C. A. Sooter. 1941. Canada Goose habitats in Utah and Oregon. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 5:383-387.

  • Zöckler, C., and I. Lysenko. 2000. Water birds on the edge: first circumpolar assessment of climate change impact on Arctic breeding water birds. Cambridge, UK: World Conservation Press.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.