Anser caerulescens - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Snow Goose
Other English Common Names: snow goose
Synonym(s): Chen caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chen caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 175038)
French Common Names: oie des neiges
Spanish Common Names: Ganso Blanco
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101815
Element Code: ABNJB04010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 10685

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Anser
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chen caerulescens
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly placed in the genus Chen, but phylogenomic data indicate that Anser is paraphyletic if Chen is treated as a separate genus (Ottenburghs et al. 2016) (AOU 2017).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 20Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N4N5N,N5M (22Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3N), Alaska (S5B), Arizona (S3N), Arkansas (S5N), California (SNRN), Colorado (S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S5N), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S3), Idaho (S5M), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S5N), Kansas (S4N), Kentucky (S3S4N), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S3N), Maryland (S4N), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNRN,SNRM), Montana (S4N), Navajo Nation (S3N), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4N), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S5N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S4N), North Dakota (SNRM), Ohio (SNRN), Oklahoma (S5N), Oregon (S4N), Pennsylvania (S2N), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S3N), West Virginia (S2N), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S5N)
Canada Alberta (S5M), British Columbia (S4M), Labrador (SNA), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S2M), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nunavut (S5B,S5M), Ontario (S5B), Quebec (S5M), Saskatchewan (S5M), Yukon Territory (S1B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: northeastern Siberia, northern Alaska, arctic Canada, and northern Greenland. WINTERS: mainly from southern British Columbia south to California; along Gulf coast from Veracruz, Mexico, and Texas to western Florida; on Atlantic coast, New Jersey to South Carolina; casual in Hawaii (Godfrey 1966, Pratt et al. 1987). In recent years, a growing segment of western arctic population wintered in middle Rio Grande valley and Pecos River valley in New Mexico and to lakes in northern Chihuahua (and in southeastern Colorado in some mild winters) (Johnson and Herter 1989, Taylor and Kirby 1990).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Breeding population estimated at around 5 million in 1997 (Mowbray et al. 2000).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: While on fall staging areas, susceptible to disturbances by low-flying aircraft and other human activities (see Johnson and Herter 1989).

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: Most populations currently increasing; in North America, numbers have tripled since 1973 (Mowbray et al. 2000). Population indices for different populations were stable or increasing during 1980s (USFWS 1988). Breeding population at La Perouse Bay, Manitoba, increased from about 2000 pairs to 10,000 pairs between 1969 and the late 1980s (Cooch et al. 1991). Population on Howe Island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, increased from 39 nesting pairs in 1980 to 412 pairs in 1993; immigration was a significant factor (Johnson 1995). See Johnson and Herter (1989) for information on status in Beaufort Sea region. Wintering population of Snow/Ross' goose in central New Mexico increased greatly from 1976 to 1985, causing problems for crane management (Taylor and Kirby 1990).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Huge numbers reported historically, but no quantified data available to establish trends. Since 1960s, numbers have been growing exponentially throughout most of range (Mowbray et al. 2000).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: northeastern Siberia, northern Alaska, arctic Canada, and northern Greenland. WINTERS: mainly from southern British Columbia south to California; along Gulf coast from Veracruz, Mexico, and Texas to western Florida; on Atlantic coast, New Jersey to South Carolina; casual in Hawaii (Godfrey 1966, Pratt et al. 1987). In recent years, a growing segment of western arctic population wintered in middle Rio Grande valley and Pecos River valley in New Mexico and to lakes in northern Chihuahua (and in southeastern Colorado in some mild winters) (Johnson and Herter 1989, Taylor and Kirby 1990).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bingham (16011), Canyon (16027), Fremont (16043), Jefferson (16051), Nez Perce (16069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Eggs are laid in June-July (sometimes late May); mainly early June in Beaufort Sea region, mid-June at Bylot Island; females arrive in nesting areas carrying well-developed eggs. Usually 4-5, sometimes 3-8, eggs incubated by female for 23-25 days (also reported as 20-23 days). Male stands guard. Young can fly at 38-49 days. Families usually break up by next nesting season. Some females begin nesting when two years old, years, most nest when three years old, and some delay breeding until they are at least four years old (Viallefont 1995, Auk 112:67-76). In Manitoba, females aged 5-7 years produced greater proportion of offspring than did younger or older mothers (Ratcliffe et al. 1988). Food availability in spring staging areas and weather during early nesting season may affect reproductive output. Incubating females take recesses to feed, especially in the third week (Reed 1995, Condor 97:993-1001). Does not renest if clutch destroyed or lost. Nesting colonies may number 1200 pairs per square mile. Mean clutch size decreased as population size increased in Manitoba colony (Cooch et al. 1989). Some females lay eggs in nests of other conspecifics.
Ecology Comments: Mortality is highest in young; annual adult survival around 80%; few live beyond 10-15 years (Auk 109:731-747). See McLandress (1983) for nest density dynamics. Mean home ranges during brood-rearing varied from 6.6 to 21.7 square kilometers (Hughes et al. 1994).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates north in March and April, arrives in breeding areas in May or early June. Migrates south August-November. Generally retraces in fall routes used in spring. Geese that nest near Hudson Bay generally winter along the coast of Texas and Louisiana; those that nest in the central Canadian arctic usually winter in Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico; nesters from western Canadian arctic usually winter in valleys of California and in New Mexico and Mexico; those that nest on Wrangel Island winter in and around Fraser and Skagit river deltas in British Columbia and Washington, respectively, and also in valleys of California (Johnson and Herter 1989, which see for many further details on migration). The Arctic coastal plain of northeastern Alaska and Yukon is an important staging (feeding) area for most of the western arctic population. Most depart northern staging areas in the Beaufort Sea area by October. Subspecies ATLANTICUS apparently makes only one stop (St. Lawrence River estuary) during spring migration; this is an essential area for accumulating the fat reserves needed for migration and especially reproduction (Gauthier et al. 1992); marshes of St. Lawrence estuary also are used for 5-7 weeks in fall. Males pair with females on mixed wintering grounds and accompany female to her natal or previous nesting area.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous, Tundra
Habitat Comments: Winters in both freshwater and coastal wetlands, wet prairies and extensive sandbars, foraging also in pastures, cultivated lands and flooded fields (AOU 1983). Nests in tundra marshes near water, on raised hummocks and ridges. In Manitoba, geese nesting in tall willows had better reproductive success than did geese nesting in shorter willows or in areas without willows (Jackson et al. 1988). Females generally nest at their natal or prior nest site.
Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore
Food Comments: Browses on grasses; eats grains; uproots sedges, marsh grasses, and aquatic plants (eats stem, rhizomes, roots, bulbs). During initial part of breeding period uses nutritional reserves accumulated in winter and in staging areas.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 71 centimeters
Weight: 3450 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Swans and Geese

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Map Foraging Areas in separate polygons from the nest site if they are separated from the nest by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas and foraging areas used during the nesting season, but the separation distance is based on nesting-area polygons. Thus different occurrences may overlap if birds from different nesting areas travel to the same foraging area during the nesting season. The separation distance is arbitrary but is intended to yield occurrences that are not impracticably large for conservation purposes.

Canada Geese usually forage near nest site, but adults will forage up to 8 kilometers away (Williams and Sooter 1941, Hammond and Mann 1956) and young will occasionally travel up to 16 kilometers to a foraging area as well (Palmer 1976). Mean home ranges of brood-rearing Snow Geese ranged from 6.6 to 21.7 square kilometers on Bylot Island (Hughes et al. 1994).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on the conservative, smaller mean home range for Snow Geese of 6.6 square kilometers (Hughes et al. 1994).
Date: 26Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S. and G. Hammerson
Notes: Contains all species of swans and geese, as well as whistling-ducks.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Some swans - Cygnus buccinator, in particular - have known migratory routes and staging areas. For these, evidence of past or present recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks and potential recurring presence at a given location. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season and habitat; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set to yield occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes.
Date: 07Aug2017
Author: Ormes, M.
Notes: Created at request of NE; needs review by zoologist.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging area, Roosting site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of past or present recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds, including nonbreeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season, and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 50 birds occur regularly for at least 20 days per year would be deemed EOs.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set to yield occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations. Swans and geese can travel considerable distances on a daily basis; in winter, flocks of Canada Geese foraged up to 48 km from roost in Texas (Glazener 1946).
Date: 26Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Notes: Contains all species of swans and geese, as well as whistling-ducks.

Use Class: Wintering site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Overlaps with Nonbreeding LUC, but some swans - Cygnus buccinator in particular - have distinct wintering and staging areas. For these, evidence of past or present recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds, and potential recurring presence at a given location. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season and habitat; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Date: 07Aug2017
Author: Ormes, M.
Notes: Created at request of NE; needs review by zoologist.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13May1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Abraham, K. 2000. RE: Snow Goose Population - email to Colin Jones dated Feb. 18, 2000. . 1 pp.

  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithological Society (AOS). Chesser, R. T., K. J. Burns, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., J. D. Rising, D. F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society's Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk: Ornithological Advances 134:751-773. DOI: 10.1642/AUK-17-72.1.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). Chesser, R.T., K.J. Burns, C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, I.J. Lovette, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising, D.F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2017. Fifty-eighth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 134:751-773.

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  • Cooch, E. G., D. B. Lank, R. F. Rockwell, and F. Cooke. 1989. Long-term decline in fecundity in a Snow Goose population: evidence for density dependence? Journal of Animal Ecology 58:711-726.

  • Cooch, E. G., D. B. Lank, R. F. Rockwell, and F. Cooke. 1991. Long-term decline in body size in a Snow Goose population: evidence of environmental degradation? Journal of Animal Ecology 60:483-496.

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  • Cooke, F., D. T. Parkin, and R. F. Rockwell. 1988. Evidence of former allopatry of the two color phases of lesser snow geese (CHEN CAERULSCENS CAERULESCENS). Auk 105:467-479.

  • DICKINSON, MARY B., ED. 1999. FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA, 3RD ED. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 480 PP.

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

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  • GEHLBACH, FREDERICK R. 1991. THE EAST-WEST TRANSITION ZONE OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES IN CENTRAL TEXAS: A BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS. TEXAS J. SCI. 43(4):415-427.

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  • Giroux, J.-F., and J. Bedard. 1988. Use of bulrush marshes by greater snow geese during staging. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:415-420.

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  • Hughes, R. J., A. Reed, and G. Gauthier. 1994. Space and habitat use by Greater Snoow Goose broods on Bylot Island, Northwest Territories. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:536-545.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pages.

  • Jackson, S. L., D. S. Hik, and R. F. Rockwell. 1988. The influence of nesting habitat on reproductive success of the lesser snow goose. Can. J. Zool. 66:1699-1703.

  • Johnson, S. R. 1995. Immigration in a small population of Snow Geese. Auk 112:731-736.

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  • Ratcliffe, L., R. F. Rockwell, and F. Cooke. 1988. Recruitment and maternal age in lesser snow geese CHEN CAERULESCENS CAERULESCENS. J. Anim. Ecol. 57:553-563.

  • Ridgely, R. S. 2002. Distribution maps of South American birds. Unpublished.

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  • Ryder, R. A. 1965. A Checklist of the Birds of the Rio Grande Drainage of Southern Colorado. Unpublished report. 41 pp.

  • Sciascia, Jim. 1998-08-27. Electronic mail to Rick Dutko, NJNHP, regarding SRANK changes.

  • See SERO listing

  • Sibley, C.G., and B.L. Monroe, Jr. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. xxiv + 1111 pp.

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Sinclair, P.H., W.A. Nixon, C.D. Eckert and N.L. Hughes. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC. 595pp.

  • Soper, J. D. 1942. Life history of the blue goose. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist 42:121-225.

  • Stokes, D. W., and L. Q. Stokes. 1996. Stokes field guide to birds: western region. Little, Brown & Company Limited, Boston.

  • THOMPSON,M.C., AND C. ELY.1989. BIRDS IN KANSAS VOLUME ONE.

  • Taylor, J. P., and R. E. Kirby. 1990. Experimental dispersal of wintering snow and Ross' geese. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18:312-319.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1988. SEIS 88. Final supplemental environmental impact statement: issuance of annual regulations permitting the sport hunting of migratory birds. x + 340 pp.

  • Williams, C. S., and C. A. Sooter. 1941. Canada Goose habitats in Utah and Oregon. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 5:383-387.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 1997. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Winter 1997. 36pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2002. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2002. 16pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2002. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring 2002. 16pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2003. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2003. 30pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2004. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2004. 24pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2004. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring 2004. 32pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2006. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2006. 20pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2007. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall/Winter 2007. 20pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2007. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring Summer 2007. 12pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2008. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2008. 26pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2009. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring 2009. 36pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2012. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2012. 15pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2013. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2013. 16pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2014. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring 2014. 12pp.

  • eBird. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2016.

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