Chelidonium majus - L.
Greater Celandine
Other Common Names: celandine
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chelidonium majus L. (TSN 501481)
French Common Names: grand chélidoine
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.148354
Element Code: PDPAP06010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Poppy Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Papaverales Papaveraceae Chelidonium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chelidonium majus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (01May2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, GA, IAexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, TNexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Chelidonium majus can become abundant in minimally managed situations, and can outcompete other native herbaceous plants. It is established in 30 states and DC, mostly in New England, the mid-Atlantic, and the Midwest. There are also reports of it in Washington, Montana and Utah. This plant establishes within New England in early-successional forests, edges, floodplain forests, open disturbed areas, roadsides, vacant lots, and wet meadows. Chelidonium majus is most often found in disturbed areas, especially with moist soil. Ants disperse the seeds of this plant, due to an elaiosome on the seed that attracts the ants. It is also currently sold at nurseries in Wisconsin.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Unknown
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 23Feb2004
Evaluator: Lu, S.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to Eurasia from Spain to Turkey and Russia, north to Great Britain and Ireland and south to North Africa (Mehrhoff et al. 2001).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is a non-native that is established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Unknown
Comments: This species establishes in natural areas in Connecticut, Maryland, Vermont and Wisconsin, specifically in Antietam National Battlefield (Maryland), and Monocacy National Battlefield Park (Maryland) (PCA 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High/Low significance
Comments: This species can be ecologically invasive (WSH 2004).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Chelidonium majus can become abundant in minimally managed situations, and can outcompete other native herbaceous plants(Mehrhoff et al. 2001).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Established in 30 states and DC, mostly in the new england, mid-atlantic, and the midwest (Kartesz 1999). In the United States it is located from Maine to Georgia and west to Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri. There are also reports of it in Washington, Montana and Utah. (Mehrhoff et al. 2001).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High/Moderate significance
Comments: This plant can become abundant in New England (Mehrhoff et al. 2001).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Low significance
Comments: In at least 8 ecoregions, and in at most ~42 ecoregions(Inference using data from Kartesz 1999 and TNC Ecoregion 2001 map).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Establishes within new england in early successional forests, edges, floodplain forests, open disturbed areas, roadsides, vacant lots, and wet meadows (Mehrhoff et al. 2001). Moist to dry woods, thickets, fields, hedgerows and fences, roadsides, railroads, and waste ground (FNAEC 1982).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Unknown

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Unknown
Comments: Potential range unknown.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Ants disperse the seeds of this plant, due to an elaiosome on the seed that attracts the ants. This plant could be moved conceivably wherever there are ants to move the seeds (Mehrhoff et al. 2001). Currently sold at nurseries or elsewhere in Wisconsin (WSH 2004).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Unknown

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Chelidonium majus is most often found in disturbed areas especially with moist soil (Mehrhoff et al. 2001). In Canada, it is considered to have low invasive potential and is found mainly near towns (CBCN, no date).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: Also established in Canada (Kartesz 1999).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: In the UK, this plant produces lots of seeds but most are killed by the winter cold and damp (DGS 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Low significance
Comments: Manually removal is recommended for mgmt of Chelidonium majus (CBCN, not dated).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Canadian Botanical Conservation Network. No Date. Details about invasive herbaceous plants. Available: http://www.rbg.ca/cbcn/en/invasives/Celandine. (Accessed 2004).

  • Down Garden Services. 2003. Wayward weeds. Available: http://www.dgsgardening.btinternet.co.uk/wayward.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1982. Flora of North America. Oxford University Press. Available: http://flora.huh.harvard.edu:8080/flora/flora_page.jsp?flora_id=1. (Accessed 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Mehrhoff, L.J., J.A. Silander, Jr., S.A. Leicht and E. Mosher. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Online. Available: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/.

  • Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA). 2003. Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Last updated 4 September 2003. Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/all.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2003, December 10, 2003 - last update. Non-native plants. Available: http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/land/er/invasive/nonnative.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Wisconsin State Herbarium. 2004, January 20, 2004 last update. Wisconsin state herbarium vascular plant species database. Available: http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora/. (Accessed 2004).

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