Charadrius semipalmatus - Bonaparte, 1825
Semipalmated Plover
Other Common Names: Batuíra-da-Bando
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (TSN 176506)
French Common Names: pluvier semipalmé
Spanish Common Names: Chorlo Semipalmeado
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103068
Element Code: ABNNB03060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 11153

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Charadriidae Charadrius
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Charadrius semipalmatus
Taxonomic Comments: C. hiaticula and C. semipalmatus are considered conspecific by some authors (AOU 1983). It has been suggested that semipalmatus and hiaticula represent two morphs of a single species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (22Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4N), Alaska (S5B), Arizona (S4M), Arkansas (S3N), California (SNR), Colorado (S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S4N), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (S1M), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S5N), Kansas (S3N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S4N), Maine (S4S5N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (S3S4M), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4N), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S4N), North Dakota (SX), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S4N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S4), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (S4N), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada British Columbia (S4S5B), Labrador (S3B,S4M), Manitoba (S4B), New Brunswick (SNRB,S4S5M), Newfoundland Island (S1B,S4M), Northwest Territories (S4S5B), Nova Scotia (S1B,S3S4M), Nunavut (S4B,S4M), Ontario (S4B,S4N), Prince Edward Island (SHB,S3M), Quebec (S3S4B), Saskatchewan (S1B,S5M), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: western and northern Alaska across low arctic and boreal areas of northern Canada, south to Queen Charlotte Islands, James Bay, and Nova Scotia; also recorded nesting in Oregon. NORTHERN WINTER: from central California, coastally along Gulf of Mexico, and South Carolina south, including West Indies, to southern Argentina and Chile (Godfrey 1966); also Hawaiian Islands (uncommon). Nonbreeders often summer in wintering areas south at least to Panama and Colombia.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population estimated at 150,000 (Morrison et al. 2001).

Short-term Trend Comments: Morrison (1993/1994) categorized the trend in Canada as "stable?" Fall migration counts in southeastern Canada significantly increased from 1980 to 1991 (Morrison et al. 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: western and northern Alaska across low arctic and boreal areas of northern Canada, south to Queen Charlotte Islands, James Bay, and Nova Scotia; also recorded nesting in Oregon. NORTHERN WINTER: from central California, coastally along Gulf of Mexico, and South Carolina south, including West Indies, to southern Argentina and Chile (Godfrey 1966); also Hawaiian Islands (uncommon). Nonbreeders often summer in wintering areas south at least to Panama and Colombia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NDextirpated, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bingham (16011), Camas (16025), Jefferson (16051), Nez Perce (16069)
OR Harney (41025)
WA King (53033)+, Thurston (53067)+
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Idaho Falls (17040201)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Camas (17040220)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Lake Washington (17110012), Nisqually (17110015), Silver (17120004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins early June in south to late June in north. Both sexes, in turn, incubate 3-4 eggs, for 23- 25 days. Young precocial, tended by both parents, can fly at 22-31 days. Nests in loose colonies. At Churchill, Manitoba, nesting density was 0.01-4.00 (mean 0.36) pairs/ha in coastal areas, 0.03-140 (mean 1.26) pairs/ha at inland sites (Wilson Bull. 105:455-464).
Ecology Comments: Forages singly or in loose groups; roosts at high tide in compact flocks (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates along coasts and commonly through interior North America. Arrives in U.S. by April-May during northward migration; reaches Alaska in May, arrives in many part of Beaufort Sea region in late May. Fall migration begins in late July; most have departed nesting areas by late August (Johnson and Herter 1989). Abundant migrant in Costa Rica early August-November and late March-early May (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Tidal flat/shore
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Bare rock/talus/scree, Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Tundra
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding: mudflats, shallow marshes, beaches, flooded fields, salinas, shores of river mouths, and shores of lakes and ponds (AOU 1983). Use of freshwater habitats occurs mostly during migration.

Nests on grassy or mossy tundra, river gravel bars, coastal flats and dunes, beaches, stony ridges, and other rocky well-drained, and/or barren habitats (Johnson and Herter 1989). The nest may be a shallow depression scraped out by the bird; may also nest in moss or lichens.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: In coastal areas forages often on intertidal sand or mud for marine worms, small mollusks and crustaceans, insect eggs and larvae. In inland areas consumes large numbers of grasshoppers and earthworms (Terres 1980).
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: See Robert et al. (1989).
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 18 centimeters
Weight: 47 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

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http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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