Chamaesyce hooveri - (L.C. Wheeler) Koutnik
Hoover's Broomspurge
Other English Common Names: Hoover's Sandmat, Hoover's Spurge
Other Common Names: Hoover's sandmat
Synonym(s): Euphorbia hooveri L.C. Wheeler
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chamaesyce hooveri (L.C. Wheeler) Koutnik (TSN 501427)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137469
Element Code: PDEUP0D150
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Spurge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Euphorbiales Euphorbiaceae Chamaesyce
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chamaesyce hooveri
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Dec2016
Global Status Last Changed: 26Dec2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Restricted to vernal pools on the eastern margin of the Central Valley of California. There are 24 extant populations and 5 are extirpated. Vernal pool habitats in California's Central Valley have been greatly reduced from pre-European times; the remaining habitats are limited in extent, fragmented, and are facing on-going degradation and elimination due to numerous housing development projects and other types of urban development, agricultural activities and development, grazing, the invasion of non-native plant species, and other threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (26Mar1997)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to lower elevations in  California.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Twenty-nine occurrences but 5 are extirpated.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The California Native Plant Society reports that this specis is threatened by grazing, altered hydrology, non-native plants and agriculture (CNPS 2001). Cattle grazing, and ultimately habitat degredation, is the greatest threat to this species (CNDDB 2003). 

Short-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Short-term Trend Comments: Based on viability ratings for occurrences, this species is suspected of having declines of around 50-90% ( 9 occurrences have poor viability and 5 confirmed extirpated). Many populations seem very marginal in size and condition.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to lower elevations in  California.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Butte (06007), Glenn (06021), Merced (06047), Stanislaus (06099), Tehama (06103), Tulare (06107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Sacramento-Stone Corral (18020104)+, Big Chico Creek-Sacramento River (18020157)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, Upper Kaweah (18030007)+, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040001)+, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040002)+*, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A prostrate annual herb that bears small flowers singly in the axils of its gray-green leaves.
General Description: An annual member of the spurge family. Like many other spurges, this species grows as a mat on relatively barren soil. This small plant has kidney-sheaped, grey-green leaves with small white teeth on their edges. Small, white flowers.
Technical Description: Annual. ST prostrate to decumbent, glabrous. LF 2-5 mm; stipules fused, fringed; blade round, glabrous, papillate, tip rounded, margin coarsely toothed. INFL: involucre+-2 mm, bell-shaped, glabrous; gland < 1 mm, round; appendage wider than gland, deeply 3-5-lobed, white. STAMINATE FLS 30-35. PISTILLATE FL: style undivided. FR 1.5-2 mm, spheric, lobed, glabrous. SEED +-1.5 mm, ovoid, widely 4-angled, shallowly ridged, white.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Chamaesyce ocellata can occur with C. hooveri but is readily distinguished by its spreading rather than prostrate habit, yellowish-green color and entire leaf margins. C. serpyllifolia can occur with C. hooveri in San Joaquin County. Both species have a gray-green color and may be prostrate, but C. serp. has less rounded leaves, and the marginal teeth are shorter and are usually limited to the leaf apex.
Duration: ANNUAL
Ecology Comments: Chamaesyce hooveri grows on the dried mudflats in the deepest portions (often middle) of Vernal Pools. Plant emerges from large cracks which spread as the clay of the pool bottom dries. There is usually very little herbaceous cover growing with C. hooveri, though the plant has been observed to grow in the shade of other low-growing species. Orcuttia pilosa has been frequently associated with C. hooveri. Distribution and abundance of C. hooveri may be limited by competition from native and introduced plants. Major threat to this species is development and ag conversion of vernal pools.
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Habitat Comments: Chamaesyce hooveri prefers large, deep Vernal Pools along the eastern edge of California's Central Valley.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Oct2017
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Michael Schindel (Mar/97); K. Maybury (Apr/97)., rev. Treher (2017)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Dec1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): MICHAEL SCHINDEL

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • BioSystems Analysis, Inc. 1988. Status survey of the grass tribe Orcuttieae and Chamaesyce hooveri in the Central Valley of California

  • California Natural Diversity Database, Natural Heritage Program. 1979.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 12. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae to Garryaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 603 pp.

  • Fuller, K. 1993. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposed endangered status for four plants and proposed threatened status for four plants from vernal pools in the central valley of California. Fed. Register 58(149):41700-41708.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1994. California Native Plant Society's Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 5th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 338 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 1987. Element Conservation Plan for Chamaesyce hooveri. San Francisco, California.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Determination of endangered status for three plants and threatened status for five plants from vernal pools in the Central Valley of California. Federal Register 62(58): 14338-14352.

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