Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis - (Pennell) Irwin & Barneby
Big Pine Partridge-pea
Other English Common Names: Narrow-pod Sensitive-pea
Other Common Names: narrowpod sensitive pea
Synonym(s): Cassia keyensis (Pennell) J. F. Macbr.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis (Pennell) Irwin & Barneby (TSN 527271)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152168
Element Code: PDFAB470F2
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Chamaecrista
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis
Taxonomic Comments: Synonym Cassia keyensis. Distinct, a variety of one of many species in this genus. Closely related to C. grammica of the Antilles.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Oct2006
Global Status Last Changed: 18Jul1990
Rounded Global Status: T2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the Florida Keys, where currently known only from Big Pine Key in Monroe County, Florida. Threatened by habitat alteration, altered fire regime, development and non-native plants. The habitat of Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis is very uncommon; these plants occur only on the edges of rockland hammocks and pinelands in the pine rocklands. Given its narrow habitat range, and the small number of individuals that occur, Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis is vulnerable to extinction if these threats continue.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (29Sep2016)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the Florida Keys, where extant on Big Pine Key (25.3 sq. km), and known historically from No Name Key, ramrod Key, and Cudjoe Key, all in Monroe County, Florida.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Much of Big Pine Key has been developed.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: 2006: Populations extant on 3 keys. The majority of the EO's are on Big Pine Key but there are also 2 EO's outside Big Pine (U06IRC01FLUS, U06IRC02FLUS). Currently known from one island in the Florida Keys (Big Pine Key), where the species is found in undeveloped habitat in most of this area (USFWS, 2004).

Population Size Comments: 2006: Population on Cudjoe Key is approximately 150 plants and 2-3 plants occur on Lower Sugarloaf Key (U06IRC01FLUS). 2006: Estimates for population size on Big Pine were attempted and before Hurrican Wilma in 2005 were estimated to be between 900,000 and 1,400,000 but appear to be reduced after the hurricane (U06IRC02FLUS). Sometimes common and occurs throughout pinelands on Big Pine Key, with nearly 10,000 mature individuals altogether, plus numerous seedlings (USFWS, 2004). Especially common on roadsides but populations on roadsides suffer from seed predation and are less viable (Liu, pers. comm.).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: The Big Pine Key population, taken collectively, appears viable if threats can be controlled.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Alteration of the fire regime is the single most important current threat (Liu, pers. comm). In the past, rampant development destroyed most of the available habitat in the Keys and fire suppression altered what was left. Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis is shade intolerant and requires periodic burning during the late summer (Liu, pers. comm.) to reduce competition from woody vegetation (Halupa 2002). Current fire management burns only in early summer/late winter as prescribed for management of Federally Endangered Key Deer. Non-native plants also threaten Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis (Halupa 2002). Invasive non-native species include Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), earleaf acacia (Acacia auriculiformis), natal grass (Rhynchelytrum repens), shrub verbena (Lantana camara), and tongue tree (Albezia lebbeck) (Halupa 2002). Some of these species are known to affect fire return interval because of their extreme flamibility. Based on the extremely narrow range, catastrophic events such as hurricanes and tropical storms may negatively affect Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis; either event could extirpate remaining populations, or possibly cause the extinction of the species (Halupa 2002).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: The acreage of pine rocklands on Big Pine Key was reduced from 1,049 ha (2,592 ac) in 1955 to 701 ha (1,732 ac) in 1989 (Folk 1991). This has resulted in a loss of approximately 33 percent of habitat (Halupa 2002). Based on the number of people moving to Florida, pressures from development are not expected to diminish in the years to come, especially throughout the range of Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis (Halupa 2002). However, most of current range is protected.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: The species was known historically from four of the Florida Keys, but is currently known extant only on Big Pine Key (USFWS, 2004), a very significant range contraction. Plants on Big Pine Key are nominally protected within the National Key Deer Wildlife Refuge, but recieve no species-specific management. Long-term fire suppression, alteration of the fire regime, development pressures (<10% of the population not in the NWR), and sea-level rise could contribute to a decline. The magnitude of the predicted decline is unknown.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Shade intolerant, requires periodic burning to reduce competition.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Pine rockland endemic. Very little pine rockland habitat remains in the Florida Keys or elsewhere.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to the Florida Keys, where extant on Big Pine Key (25.3 sq. km), and known historically from No Name Key, ramrod Key, and Cudjoe Key, all in Monroe County, Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Monroe (12087)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Florida Bay-Florida Keys (03090203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Prostrate to ascending perennial herb with a solitary, or several, stems, and yellow flowers.
Technical Description: "Prostrate to ascending pilosulous perennial with numerous, subligneous, slender stems to 8 dm. Leafstalk 1-2 cm with sessile petiolar gland; leaflets 4-7 pairs, asymmetrically obovate-oblong, 8-11 mm, 3-4 r, slightly diminishing in size upward, strongly nerved and pubescent. Stipules persistent, striate, lanceolate, to 5 mm. Flowers axillary, 1-2. Pedicels 1-1.3 cm, to 2 cm in fruit; sepals equal, lanceolate, 8-9 mm; corolla yellow, aging orange, 1.8-2.2 cm diam; stamens ca 10, unequal, anthers reddish or partly yellow. Legume elastically dehiscent, oblong, flat, 2-4 cm long, 3-4 mm wide; valves thickly papery, brown to black, pubescent" (Isely, 1975).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Flowers showy, 2 cm or more in diameter; leaflets 4-7 pairs; prostrate to ascending pilosulous perennial; Florida keys only.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: In shallow soil overlying the coral base of the Keys, in open pine rocklands.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Dec2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D. rev. D.L. White (1991), rev. A. Olivero and M. Fellows (2003), rev. L. Morse (2005), reviewed A. Jenkins (2006)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28May1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Halupa, P. 2002. March-last update. Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Chamaecrista lineata keyensis. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/tess/candforms_pdf/r4/chalinke.pdf. Accessed 2003, February 19.

  • Institute for Regional Conservation (IRC). 2006a. Distribution and population size of five candidate plant taxa in the Florida Keys: Argythamnia blodgettii, Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis, Indigofera mucronata var. keyensis, Linum arenicola, and Sideroxylon reclinatum subsp. austrofloridense. Final report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Contract # 401815G011. Prepared by Stephen Hodges and Keith Bradley, IRC, Miami, Florida.

  • Institute for Regional Conservation (IRC). 2006b. Distribution and population size for three pine rockland endemic candidate plant taxa on Big Pine Key, Florida. Institure for Regional Conservation, Miami, Florida.

  • Isely, D. 1975. Leguminosae of the U.S.: II. Subfamily Caesalpinoideae. Memoirs New York Botanical Garden 25(2): 1-228.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensisi. 14 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2015. Endangered Species Status for Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis (Big Pine Partridge Pea), Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. serpyllum (Wedge Spurge), and Linum arenicola (Sand Flax), and Threatened Species Status for Argythamnia blodgettii (Blodgett?s Silverbush). Federal Register 80(188): 58536-58567.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2016. Endangered Species Status for Chamaecrista lineata var. keyensis (Big Pine Partridge Pea), Chamaesyce deltoidea ssp. serpyllum (Wedge Spurge), and Linum arenicola (Sand Flax), and Threatened Species Status for Argythamnia blodgettii (Blodgett?s Silverbush). Final rule. Federal Register 81(189): 66842-66865.

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