Chaenotheca ferruginea - (Turner & Borrer) Mig.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.126941
Element Code: NLCAL33030
Informal Taxonomy: Fungi/Lichens - Lichens
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Fungi Ascomycota Ascomycetes Caliciales Coniocybaceae Chaenotheca
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Esslinger, T.L. and R.S. Egan. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98(4): 467-549.
Concept Reference Code: A95ESS01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Chaenotheca ferruginea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Jun2006
Global Status Last Changed: 05Dec2002
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: A very widespread species of cool to temperate areas worldwide. Although the distribution and population sizes of this species are large enough to qualify for G5, the significant decline of the species since pre-industrial times may justify reducing the rank to G4.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (SNR), Oregon (S3), Pennsylvania (SNR), Washington (S4)
Canada Ontario (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Global distribution "Not uncommon in southern Norway and Sweden and southern and central Finland. More rare in Denmark [...] A very widespread species in temperate to cool temperate areas of both hemispheres (Europe, North America, Asia, Australasia and South America" (Tibell 1999). Within North America, widespread in temperate and boreal regions.

Area of Occupancy: 1-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Occupancy for epiphytic lichens and fungi can be difficult to estimate, particularly for calicioid species (including this species) which often occur as colonies covering only a few square centimeters on single tree trunk within a stand and then again several hundred meters away. The occupancy given above is roughly estimated as the total worldwide distribution of the species; the actual coverage of the species condensed so as to be continuous may not be much more than a few hectares.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of known occurences worldwide is probably > 500 (including many historic); Number of known occurrences in North America is probably ca. 300; Number of known occurrences in California = 1+; Number of known occurrences in Oregon = 14+; Number of known occurrences in Washington = 1+; Number of known occurrences in British Columbia = 23. Rikkinen (2003?) reports on 25 locations from the region. Although the number of extant occurrences worldwide is unknown, the North American occurrences (collections) are recent and are mostly extant.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Worldwide, the species has gone through drastic declines since pre-industrial times. The Pacific Northwest, due to logging, has been no exception. However, the rate of loss in the Pacific Northwest has slowed. Although little is known about the reproductive and dispersal biology of this species, it is thought that the species can overcome some habitat fragmentation and, at this point, is fairly secure from extirpation or extinction. However, given the strong old-growth association of this species, it should not be ignored. That, combined with it's relative infrequency in the Pacific Northwest warrents consideration in conservation actions.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: With advances in conservation, the removal of old-growth forests throughout the species range is slowing, but has not stopped.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Most calicioid lichens and fungi inhabit aged bark or wood in sheltered locations protected from direct rain interception. This species is highly restricted to the bark of old trees; in the Pacific Northwest of North America, most known occurrences are on oaks and conifers > 200 years old in open situations, with occasional occurrences on younger trees (e.g. 150 years old) (Peterson unpublished data, Peterson & McCune 2000). Removal of old forests in North America and through the rest of the species' distribution has undoubtedly had severe impacts on the number of populations, population sizes, and average dispersal distance necessary to colonize new substrates.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Given high vulnerability rank because it will not return to a forest for a century or more after a stand-initiating disturbance. Although the species is limited to substrates that are very slow to develop and the maturation time required between colonization and reproduction is unknown, the species does demonstrate a remarkable ability to disperse to appropriate substrates once they are available, even when those substrates are rather isolated. This may be due to use of a dispersal vector such as birds or arthropods which target similar habitats.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Global distribution "Not uncommon in southern Norway and Sweden and southern and central Finland. More rare in Denmark [...] A very widespread species in temperate to cool temperate areas of both hemispheres (Europe, North America, Asia, Australasia and South America" (Tibell 1999). Within North America, widespread in temperate and boreal regions.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, OR, PA, WA
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Nov2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Eric B. Peterson

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Esslinger, T.L. and R.S. Egan. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98(4): 467-549.

  • Peterson, E. B. (Search of personal herbarium on 1 November, 2002). Address: Nevada Natural Heritage Program, 1550 E. College Parkway, Carson City, NV

  • Peterson, E. B., and B. McCune. 2000. Enviornmental Relations of Calicioid Lichens and Fungi in a Temperate Landscape. In: Peterson, E. B. Analysis and prediction of patterns in lichen communities over the western Oregon landscape. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

  • Rikkinen, J. 2003. Calicioid lichens and fungi in the forests and woodlands of western Oregon. Acta Botanica Fennica 175: 1-41.

  • Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21(2): 1-128.

  • Tibell, L. 1999. Caliciales. Nordic Lichen Flora 1: 20-93.

  • USDA Forest Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002. Interagency Species Management System [ISMS] database. Portland, Oregon.

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