Centaurea solstitialis - L.
Yellow Star-thistle
Other Common Names: yellow star-thistle
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Centaurea solstitialis L. (TSN 36972)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136039
Element Code: PDAST1Y0S0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Centaurea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Centaurea solstitialis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (12Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Florida (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, MBexotic, ONexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NV Carson City (32510), Churchill (32001), Storey (32029), Washoe (32031)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Truckee (16050102)+, Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes (16050103)+, Upper Carson (16050201)+, Carson Desert (16050203)+
18 Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Medium
Rounded I-Rank: High
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Centaurea solstitialis often creates artificial drought conditions even after average precipitation years, increases erosion from the switch from perennial to annual system, and negatively impacts or eliminates microbiotic crust. It creates a more uniform density in grassland layer and displaces native plants and animals by reducing forage and habitat. It can form impenetrable stands and threatens pacific northwest bunchgrasses and rare plants associated with them. Seedlings monopolize soil moisture and are highly competitive for soil nutrients and space. It invades a desert preserve in Oregon containing the threatened Lomatium cookei. Lomatium cookei is currently ranked as a G1 in the NatureServe database in March 2004. This plant occasionally threatens endangered grassland species (e.g., Chlorogalum purpureum var. purpureum). It also fragments sensitive plant and animal habitat. It is in all but a few states in the U.S. It inhabits rangeland, pastures, grasslands, roadsides, shrub steppe, and open woodlands. It spreads at a rate of ca. 6%/year. Its general range now covers a large portion of the U.S. but in the eastern U.S., its distribution is spotty. It is very reproductively aggressive. An integrated management approach can control this species.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Medium
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Medium
I-Rank Review Date: 05Mar2004
Evaluator: Killeffer, T.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Southern, eastern and Mediterranean Isl. of Europe, nothern Africa, and temperate Asia (Weber 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Kartesz 1999.

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Western U.S. (Weber 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Medium

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High significance
Comments: Utilizes deep soil moisture, often creating artificial drought conditions even after average precipitation years (J. DiTomago 1999); Increased erosion from switch from perennial to annual system; negatively impacts or eliminates microbiotic crust layer (J. Hill 1999).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium/Low significance
Comments: More uniform density in grassland layer (J. Hill 1999). Displaces native plants and can form impenetrable stands (DiTomaso 2001).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Threatens pacific northwest bunchgrasses and rare plants associated with them (J. Hill 1999). Displaces native plants and animals by reducing forage and habitat (DiTomaso 2001). "Seedlings monopolize soil moisture and are highly competitive for soil nutrients and space (Wilson 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:High/Low significance
Comments: Invades a desert preserve in Oregon containing the threatened Lomatium cookei. Lomatium cookei currently ranked as a G1 in the NatureServe database in March 2004. Occasionally threatens endangered grassland species (e.g., Chlorogalum purpureum var. purpureum) (J. DiTomago 1999)

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Invades a desert preserve in Oregon containing the threatened Lomatium cookei. Fragments sensitive plant and animal habitat (DiTomaso 2001). Grasslands dominated by annual grasses; occasionally threatens endangered grassland species (e.g., Chlorogalum purpureum var. purpureum) (J. DiTomago 1999). Lomatium cookei currently ranked as a G1 and Chlorogalum purpureum var. purpureum as G1T1 in the NatureServe database in March 2004.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: In all but a few states (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Listed as a noxious weed in 11 states (Kartesz 1999). Viewed as a problem in rangeland, pastures, grasslands and roadsides (DiTomaso 2001).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: Ca. 40 - 52 ecoregions occupied (TNC 2001 and Kartesz 1999).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Rangeland, pastures, grasslands, and roadsides; does not do well in shade (DiTomaso 2001). Shrub steppe and open woodlands (Wilson 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Spread at a rate of ca. 6%/year (Wilson 2003). General range now covers a large portion of the U.S. (Kartesz 1999) but in the eastern U.S., its distribution is spotty (USDA NRCS 2004) .

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Medium/Low significance
Comments: The generalized range is based on Kartesz 1999 but the county distribution data on the USDA Plants Database (2004) gives spotty distribution in many counties and it appears to continue spread.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Road maintenance equipment other vehicles are the primary long-distance dispersers as well as movement of contaminated hay and uncertified seed. Without human related dispersal, seeds can can attach to clothing or fur or
be carried very short distances by wind (DiTomaso 2001).


13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Spread at a rate of ca. 6%/year (Wilson 2003). Estimated to be expanding in rangelands by 7,000 - 20,000 in acres/year and twice that by 1994 (DiTomaso 2001).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Moderate significance
Comments: Rangeland, pastures, grasslands, and roadsides; does not do well in shade (DiTomaso 2001). Shrub steppe and open woodlands (Wilson 2003).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: Also in Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Australia, South America and parts of Europe and Africa but not sure as to what type of habitats (Weber 2003).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:High significance
Comments: Goes from flower initiation to mature seed in only 8 days; large plants can produce over 100,000 seeds; has extended germination of Oct. - June; studies have shown that buried seed can germinate after six - ten years but seed dispersed on the ground would only last around two or three years; plant can recover if leaves and buds are still attached to base of plant (DiTomaso 2001). Growth plasticity (Wilson 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Medium

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Moderate significance
Comments: An integrated approach using mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control appears to be necessary for long-term control and must be tailored to the specific situation (DiTomaso 2001).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Based on the years the seed may be viable and that control methods are preventing seed production.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Low significance
Comments: The options available for an integrated approach allows for minimal impact on native species (DiTomaso 2001).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Sometimes occurs in steep terrain (DiTomaso 2001).

Other Considerations: Infests nearly 25 million acres (39,000 sq. miles) in California and other western states; Important honey source; causes a neurological disorder in horses (DiTomaso 2001).
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • DiTomaso, J. M. 2001. TNC Element Stewardship Abstract for Centaurea solstitialis L. Weed Science Program, Robbins Hall, University of California. http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/centsols.html

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Randall, J.M. and J. Marinelli (eds.) 1996. Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov) . National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

  • Wilson, L. M., et. al. 2003. Biology and biological control of Yellow Starthistle. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team (FHTET), USDA Forest Service.

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