Centaurea jacea - L.
Brown Star-thistle
Other English Common Names: Brown Knapweed, Brownray Knapweed
Other Common Names: brownray knapweed
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Centaurea jacea L. (TSN 36962)
French Common Names: centaurée jacée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133744
Element Code: PDAST1Y0A0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Centaurea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Centaurea jacea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (02Nov2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MTexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, NBexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Unknown
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Centaurea jacea, a knapweed, occurs in the eastern United States, is absent from the deep south and midwest, but does occur in the west. It is primarily a problem in Washington, where it is listed as noxious, and in Oregon. Little information is available about whether this species invades native species habitats, its ecological impacts and whether it appears to be spreading. It is known that this species prefers cooler and moister areas than other knapweeds that are problematic in the west.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Unknown
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Unknown
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 04Mar2004
Evaluator: Oliver, L.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Centaurea jacea is native to Asia (Lebanon, Syria and Turkey) and throughout Europe (GRIN).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This knapweed species is established in the United States and Canada. In the United States it is found in New England south to Virginia and Tennessee, but does not occurs in the deep south, the midwest, but does occur in the west. It is a noxious weed in Washington (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Centaurea jacea may occur in conservation areas. In Washington, it is documented that this species occurs in meadows and pastures, but it is unclear whether these areas include native species habitat (WA State Noxious Weed Control Board).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Unknown

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Unknown

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: This species is an herbaceous species and so it could affect at least on vegetative layer (WA State Noxious Weed Control Board).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Centaurea jacea has been reported to be aggressive and invasive, and that it crowds out more desirable forage (WA State Noxious Weed Control Board).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Unknown

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Centaurea jacea is known in many western states, however, is predominantly in Oregon and Washington. It is also in many states in the eastern United States, many from Virginia north to Maine (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance
Comments: This species is mainly in coastal Washington and Oregon, as it prefers moister, cooler conditions (Wilson and Randall 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Low significance
Comments: This species occurs in at least one major ecoregion, and possibly more (TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: This species is reported to occur in at least two habitats, pastures and meadows in Washington (WA State Noxious Weed Control Board). It may occur in other habitat types, as this species prefers cooler and moister places than most knapweeds (Wilson and Randall 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Unknown

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Unknown

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Low significance
Comments: Centaurea jacea is known to disperse long distance at least sometimes. This species has been planted as an ornamental and as a crop, so humans have aided its long distance dispersal (WA State Noxious Weed Control Board).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Unknown

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Unknown

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown
Comments: Centaurea jacea inhabits grasslands and open woods over much of its native range in Europe and Eurasia. It does occur up to 6,600 feet in elevation. In some parts of it range it it also occurs in meadows, woodland clearing and cutover areas (WA State Noxious Weed Control Board).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Unknown

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Unknown

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Not ranked
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2001. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/var/apache/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?6438. (Accessed 2004)

  • Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Brown Knapweed (Centaurea jacea L.) Compositae. Written Findings of the State Noxious Weed Control Board - Class A. Online. http:// www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/brownknapweed.html. Accessed 3/3/2004.

  • Wilson, L. M. and C. B. Randall. 2003. Biology and Biological Control of Knapweed. USDA-Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team (FHTET)-2001-07. 2nd Edition. Available: http://www.invasive.org/weeds/knapweed/chapter1.html (accessed 18 August 2004).

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