Catocala jair - Strecker, 1897
Jair Underwing
Other English Common Names: jair underwing
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.108436
Element Code: IILEY89B30
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Underwing Moths
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Erebidae Catocala
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Gall, L.F. and D.C. Hawks. 2010. Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV. Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list. In: Schmidt B.C, Lafontaine J.D (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths II. ZooKeys 39:37-83.
Concept Reference Code: A10GAL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Catocala jair
Taxonomic Comments: Two subspecies typical in peninsular Florida and "subspecies 2" from New York to Texas are recognized in this database. Subspecies two has seldom been correctly identified leading to many false statements that the species is strictly Floridian. Nearly all literature on the species neglects the widespread "subspecies 2." Cromartie and Schweitzer (1997) and probably Smith (1910) had it correct. Sargent (1976) discussed and illustrated the taxon but was undecided as to whether it was C. jair. It has also been called C. amica form or variety nerissa and one Syntype of that arguably valid taxon is jair and another is lineella. The latter should be chosen as a Lectotype to preserve the long standing use of jair for this species. Both D.F.Schweitzer and L.F. Gall have determined that subspecies 2 and typical jair are conspecific. The unnamed taxon should be named but there is little chance it is a separate species.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4?
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 20Dec2011
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Given paucity of collections of C. jair in New Jersey after 1980, despite abundant seemingly suitable habitat and efforts to find both adults and larvae; the well-known widespread loss of xeric upland scrub habitats in Florida, and uncertain status of C. jair in Texas, the long standing G4 rank needs to be re-evaluated. A careful review of recent specimen-vouchered records, and negative results as well, is needed. These three states would probably drive the global rank. The species is still locally common on Long Island, New York but total range in that state is only a very small portion of Suffolk County. C. jair at least used to be fairly widespread in Texas. It still does turn up in increasingly fragmented habitat in Florida. Typical Floridian jair probably should continue to be evaluated separately.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (17Mar2000)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Louisiana (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New York (SNR), North Carolina (S2), Oklahoma (S4?), Tennessee (S4), Texas (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Very spotty, restricted to major areas of xeric oak scrub. "Subspecies 2" known mostly from New Jersey and east Texas but also occurs in at least New York (Long Island), eastern North Carolina, the Florida panhandle and Oklahoma. No doubt elsewhere in between. C. JAIR JAIR occurs on the Florida peninsula from at least Highlands to Alachua/Putnam County border area and in extreme southeastern Georgia.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Excessive prescribed burning has destroyed much potential habitat in recent decades. Good habitats for this and many other scrub and sand hill Lepidoptera are despised by many foresters and botanists as overgrown, degraded, fire suppressed etc.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Very spotty, restricted to major areas of xeric oak scrub. "Subspecies 2" known mostly from New Jersey and east Texas but also occurs in at least New York (Long Island), eastern North Carolina, the Florida panhandle and Oklahoma. No doubt elsewhere in between. C. JAIR JAIR occurs on the Florida peninsula from at least Highlands to Alachua/Putnam County border area and in extreme southeastern Georgia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Bladen (37017), Moore (37125), New Hanover (37129)
NJ Burlington (34005), Ocean (34029)
NY Suffolk (36103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+
03 Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Black (03030006)+, Lumber (03040203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Habitats include xeric coastal plain pinelands, including dwarf pine plains in New Jersey and on Long Island. The latter are shrublands. Most habitats would be woodland or savanna. Gnerally the habitats area a narrow selection of the most xeric, scrubby oak barrrens or woodland available.
Food Comments: Larvae feed on spring growth of scrubby oaks. Last instars often must use fairly mature leaves that would kill most oak-feeding Catocala. Quercus ilicifolia and shrub-form Q. marilandica are the foodplants in New Jersey, the former is the foodplant on Long Island. Q. marilandica could be used much more widely, but there is no evidence that it actually is.
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Eggs overwinter, probably hatching about early-mid May in New Jersey, as the oak leaves begin to expand. Larvae are mature there in about mid June and the adults begin to appear three or four weeks later. Adults typically appear in late May in Florida and in early or mid July in New Jersey. The adult season is about a month, but a few probably persist longer. In both New Jersey and Florida, C. jair is consistently the latest of the four species of the C. amica group--an obvious adaptation to very late budbreak of the scrubby oaks, and high risk of late freezes in many of these extreme habitats.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area of xeric oak scrub or scrubby oak woodland where a population occurs, or has recently occurred, where there is potential for persistence or continued occurrence. Minimally a specimen (exceptionally a diagnostic photograph confirmed by an expert) associated with such scrub. Occurrences ranked higher than D should support permanent viable populations and should be at least 100 hectares and subject to infrequent partial burns. Highly ranked occurrences should be well over 1000 hectares. Note that at least in New Jersey occasional singletons are taken out of habitat and in such cases no EO can be confidently based on them.
Mapping Guidance: In cases where multiple oak scrub habitats occur on the same edaphic feature such as a sand hill use the suitable habitat distance over intervening marginal dry oak woodland habitat, except do not do so in New Jersey if scrub and blackjack oaks are virtually absent.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Habitats are large. While adults are rarely found out of habitat they do move a few kilometers into dry oak forest or woodland that is at best marginal habitat in both New Jersey and Florida. While occurrences in New Jersey are apparently often much smaller than the available vast tracts of scrub, in Florida and New York they do seem to fill available habitat and in New Jersey and Florida occurrences are usually several thousand hectars in extent. The smallest known occurrence is about 1000 hectares in New York although some in North Carolina may be smaller. Thus it is exceedingly unlikely that populations separated by as little as 10 kilometers across suitable habitat could be separate occurrences, but some practical arbitrary limit is needed. On the other hand the facts that some seemingly suitable habitats are vacant and that adults rarely leave their scrub areas do argue for small distances over unsuitable habitat.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: In most places outside of New Jersey suitable scrub is fragmented and occurrences are in a few thousand hectares or less. In such cases the inferred extent is simply all available habitat up to 1000 hectares. In New Jersey it does seem very clear most of the West Plains is occupied but otherwise the species seems rare and sporadic and it does not seem to extend much beyond the West Plains into nearly identical but slightly taller scrub. On the other hand there is little evidence of occurrences occupying less than 1000 hectares anywhere and most are larger. In New York the species is widespread through the Dwarf Pine Plains and it seems to occur throughout the few remaining large habitats in peninsular Florida (e.g. Archbald and Withlacoochee). Given unpredictable occupancy of scrub in New Jersey at least it seems that when information is lacking the inferred extent should be kept consistent with some of the smaller known occurrences. Pending better information the small IE seems prudent for Texas etc. also.
Date: 25Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Schweitzer, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Cromartie, W.J. and D. F. Schweitzer, 1997. Catocala, C. louisae, C. grisatra and C. jair in North Carolina. Entomological news 108(5):389-390.

  • Gall, L.F. and D.C. Hawks. 2010. Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV. Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list. In: Schmidt B.C, Lafontaine J.D (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths II. ZooKeys 39:37-83.

  • Gall, Lawrence, F. Database containing county level data for the North American species of Catocala moths. Entomology Division, Peabody Museum, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511. Accessed 1994, July 1.

  • Hall, S.P.; J.B. Sullivan; P. Backstrom; J.M. Lynch; and T. Howard. ?The Moths of North Carolina Website.? Hosted by the North Carolina Biodiversity Project and the North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation. (2018). <dpr.ncparks.gov/moths/index.php>

  • Lafontaine, J.D. and B. C. Schmidt. 2010. Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 40:1-239.

  • Sargent, T. D. 1976. Legion of Night: The Underwing Moths. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA. 222 pp. and 8 plates.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.