Casuarina cunninghamiana - Miq.
Cunningham's Casuarina
Other English Common Names: Cunningham Beefwood, River She-oak
Other Common Names: river sheoak
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. (TSN 501334)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.150116
Element Code: PDCAS01020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Casuarinales Casuarinaceae Casuarina
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Casuarina cunninghamiana
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Mar1994
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Reasons: Native of eastern Australia. Cultivated in Florida and California.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: This plant is only found in Florida and while it has grown in abundance and frequency, it has not altered natural plant communities yet.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Unknown
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 01Feb2004
Evaluator: Lu, S.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to northeast and eastern Australia (FNA online 1982), growing from southern New South Wales (latitude 37 degrees S) to northern Queensland (latitude 12 degrees S) (PU CNCPP 2004).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is a non-native that is established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: In Florida, C. cunninghamiana has naturalized in wild areas as a result of seed spread along watercourses (Merwin 1989).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Moderate significance
Comments: Is capable of nitrogen fixation when infected with the symbiotic actinomycete Frankia (Merwin 1989). The nitrogen can also be utilized by other plants growing nearby (Plants for a Future, no date).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Insignificant
Comments: In Florida, this plant has not altered native plant communities to the extent of displacing native species, changing community
structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives (FLEPPC 2003).


3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Insignificant
Comments: In Florida, this plant has not altered native plant communities to the extent of displacing native species, changing community
structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives (FLEPPC 2003).


4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: In Florida, this plant has not altered native plant communities to the extent of displacing native species, changing community
structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives (FLEPPC 2003).


5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Insignificant
Comments: In Florida, this plant has not altered native plant communities to the extent of displacing native species, changing community
structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives (FLEPPC 2003).


Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Established in Florida only (Kartesz 1999) in the central and southern parts (FLEPPC 2003).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High significance
Comments: In Florida, C. cunninghamiana has naturalized in wild areas as a result of seed spread along watercourses (Merwin 1989). Is invasive in high rainfall areas (Hull 2003). Listed as a noxious weed in Florida (Snyder 1992).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Low significance
Comments: At least in 1 TNC ecoregion, and at most in 4 ecoregions (Inference using data from Kartesz 1999 and TNC Ecoregion 2001 map).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: In its native range in Australia, it often fringes freshwater streams and rivers. It tolerates acid soils, alkaline soils, calcareous soils (perhaps chlorotic), drought, muck, sanddunes, salt, weeds, and wind. This species tolerates cold better than the other Casuarinas grown in Florida. It is also hardy to drought and frost in South Africa. However it is not as salt tolerant as C. glauca (PU CNCPP 2004).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Unknown

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown
Comments: Casuarina spp. were naturalized in the West Indies and Florida before 1920 (Elfers 1988).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Unknown
Comments: Can survive temperatures of -8 degrees C. Occurs in Warm Temperate Dry to Moist through Tropical Thorn to Dry Forest Life Zones. Can tolerate 5-15 dm of annual precipitation. It tolerates acid soils, alkaline soils, calcareous soils (perhaps chlorotic), drought, muck, sanddunes, salt, weeds, and wind. This species tolerates cold better than the other Casuarinas grown in Florida. It is also hardy to drought and frost in South Africa. However it is not as salt tolerant as C. glauca (PU CNCPP 2004).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Not ranked

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Not ranked
Comments: In Florida, this plant has increased in abundance and frequency (FLEPPC 2003).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Not ranked

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: Also established in Puerto Rico (Kartesz 1999). Also established in China and Taiwan (FNA online 1982). Also introduced in Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Florida, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, and Zimbabwe (PU CNCPP 2004). Invasive on Pacific islands (PIER 2003).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Reproduces by seed (PIER 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Not ranked

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Not ranked

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Not ranked

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Not ranked
Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13May1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Broaddus, Lynn

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Elfers, S.C. 1988. Element stewardship abstract for Casuarina equisetifolia, Australian pine. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/casuequi.html. (Accessed 2004).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1982. Flora of North America Online. Oxford University Press. Available: http://flora.huh.harvard.edu:8080/flora/flora_page.jsp?flora_id=1. (Accessed 2004).

  • Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC). 2003. List of Florida's Invasive Species. Online. Available: http://www.fleppc.org/03list.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Hull, G. 2003. Casuarina cunninghamiana - river she-oak. Glendale Public Library. Xeriscape Demonstration Garden Information Sheet. Available: http://gecko.gc.maricopa.edu/glendalelibrary/GLIS%20Casuarina%20cunninghamiana.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Merwin, M. 1989. Casuarina cunninghamiana - The River She-Oak. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Network (FACT Net) Nitrogen Fixing Tree (NFT) Highlights and FACT sheets. Winrock International, Morrilton, AZ. Available: http://www.winrock.org/forestry/factpub/FACTSH/C_cunninghamiana.html. (Accessed 2004).

  • No author. No date. Plants for a future database. Available: http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/pfaf/D_intro.html. (Accessed 2004).

  • Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk Project (PIER). 2003. Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems - species of environmental concern. Last updated 20 December 2003. Online. Available: http://www.hear.org/pier/threats.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plants Products. 2004, Janury 16, 2004 - last update. NewCROP: the new crop online resource program. Available: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/default.html. (Accessed 2004).

  • Snyder, S.A. 1992. Casuarina spp. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/. (Accessed 2004).

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

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