Castilleja salsuginosa - N. Holmgren
Monte Neva Indian-paintbrush
Other English Common Names: Monte Neva Paintbrush
Other Common Names: Monte Neva Indian paintbrush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Castilleja salsuginosa N. Holmgren (TSN 501332)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136541
Element Code: PDSCR0D2W0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
Image 12140

© James D. Morefield

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Castilleja
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Castilleja salsuginosa
Taxonomic Comments: It is unclear if this taxon should be recognized as a species or possibly as a variety of Castilleja nana, however expert M. Eggers, author of the Flora North America treatment for this genus, indicated that he does believe that it is distinct from both C. pilosa and C. nana (pers. comm. 2010). S. L. Welsh and D. Atwood (1998) completed a study to examine the genetic relationships between C. salsuginosa and other related taxa, however, their results were not conclusive and never were published. As of 2010, another group of researchers is doing an independent genetic study of the species within this complicated group and their results should be published shortly (pers. comm. S. Caicco, pers. comm. J. Morefield 2010).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Dec2010
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1997
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: A Nevada endemic with only 1-2 known occurrences in a unique, fragile hot springs habitat (apparently, this species is restricted to the particular edaphic situation created by a few mineral spring drainages). Threats to this species include water diversion away from the hot springs, herbivory, land ownership and land access issues, and climate change. There are some taxonomic questions about this taxon, such as whether it should be a variety of Castilleja nana or if the Hot Springs Hill population represents a new taxon. Regardless of these issues, what is considered 'salsuginosa' material is a restricted, rare, endemic that should be protected.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Nevada (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to Nevada: White Pine and Eureka counties.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The area of occupancy is estimated at less than 2 4km sq. grid cells, or less than 1 4 km sq. grid cell for each population.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: One occurrence in White Pine County; possible second one in Eureka County. Currently, there are two populations within this species, one in White Pine County and another in Eureka County, about 134 km apart. Not all researchers agree that these two populations belong to C. salsuginosa. Regardless of whether one believes both populatiuons should be placed in C. salsuginosa, or treated in separate taxa, both populations represent critically imperiled taxa. Even when treating both populations as 'salsuginosa', the taxonomy followed here, the conservation rank is critically imperiled.

Population Size Comments: In 2007 were less than 1,000 individuals at the Hot Spring Hill population and fewer than 3,000 at the Monte Neva Hot Spring population (pers. comm. S. Caicco).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are two known occurrences both with good viability.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: A number of threats impact this species including, herbivory, livestock, horses, pronghorn antelopes, off-road vehicles, changes in water levels from geothermal development, land conversion for an energy corridor and climate change (U.S. FWS 2009).

In the 2007 surveys, heavy herbivory was evident, but the impacts were unclear. For example, it was evident that the plants had been eaten, including the flower spike, but in later visits in the same season the plants had branched and produced multiple inflorescences (pers. comm. S. Caicco).

Livestock and horses are also threats in that the type location occurs on private lands (U.S. FWS 2009). The owners with the largest holding, have allowed surveys to be completed on their land, but a portion of population occurs on other property owners' lands and cows and horses have been observed on these portions. Surveys on these other portions of the type locality have not been completed and access to those properties would need to be granted.

Changes in groundwater levels at the hot springs where this species occurs will cause negative responses, and geothermal energy development is the most likely source of groundwater disturbance (U.S. FWS 2009). Also, water diversion from the spring heads for private use has also been a threat (NatureServe Element Occurrence data). Water diversion may cause either an immediate decline or a long term decline, or both. A immediate negative response to water diversion could occur if large quantities of water are diverted, and only long term declines may be detected if smaller quantities of water are drawn away over a period of time. All in all, changes to the hot spring hydrology will negatively affect the Monte Neva paintbrush.

Camping and off-road vehicles have been cited as threats to this species at one site (NatureServe Element Ocurrence data, U.S. FWS 2009).

Finally, climate change is also a potential threat to this paintbrush species (U.S. FWS 2009). N. Holmgren speculated that the speciation of C. salsuginosa may be due to a recent divergence occurring after a glacial episode during the Pleistocene where alpine species took refuge in valleys. It is most closely related to C. nana which is a montane species (Welsh and Atwood 1998). Currently, one taxonomic debate surrounding this taxon is whether it should be treated as a variety of C. nana or treated as a species. Climate change could affect this species in that the Great Basin valleys, including the Steptoe valley where this taxon occurs, will be faced with warming and drying conditions in the future.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Element occurrence data do not provide enough information to comment definitely, however, one of the occurrences seems to have declined in the timespan between the late ninties and 2002 when the population was revisited. Population numbers were gathered again in 2007 and the same population had grown to approximately 2,000 individuals (pers. comm. S. Caicco). In 2007, total population numbers were estimated around 3,000 (pers. comm. S. Caicco). Even with these data points regarding population numbers, it is not clear if this species numbers are declining or holding stable. Regular monitoring would need to be established to gain a better understanding about short term trends.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Castilleja salsuginosa occurs only in hot springs in one very narrow region in the Great Basin, NV.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Endemic to Nevada: White Pine and Eureka counties.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NV Eureka (32011), White Pine (32033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial herb, to 1.8 dm tall. Probably somewhat parasitic. The plant, including the inflorescence, is mostly purplish-brown (sometimes appearing grayish), but the inflorescence is tinged with cream and rose colored bracts and petals. Blooms June-July.
Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Alkaline meadows in damp, saline clay soil, on hummocks and salty mounds of hot springs deposits that formed along the shallow washes draining the mineral springs (water temperature near the mounds is cool). Elevation is about 1830 m (6000 feet).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Dec2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Oliver, L.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Caicco, S., F. Edwards, and J. Blair. 2010. Vulnerability of the rarest plants in the Great Basin of Nevada to climate change. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office, Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. Poster available at http://www.fws.gov/southwest/Climatechange/poster%20pdfs/GreatBasinRarePlantPoster_Caiccoetal.pdf (accessed 12/17/2010).

  • Cronquist, A., A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal, and P. K. Holmgren. 1984. Intermountain flora vol. 4. Subclass Asteridae (except Asteraceae). Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden. 573 pp.

  • Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1984. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 4, Subclass Asteridae (except Asteraceae). New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 573 pp.

  • Holmgren, N.H. 1973. Five new species of Castilleja (Scrophulariaceae) from the Intermountain Region. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100: 83-93.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Ph.D. dissertation. Univ. of Nevada, Reno. 3 volumes. 1729 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Morefield, J.D. 1993. Status report for Castilleja salsuginosa N. Holmgren. Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Reno.

  • Morefield, J.D. 1993. Status report for Castilleja salsuginosa N. Holmgren. Carson City: Nevada Natural Heritage Program, prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Reno.

  • Morefield, J.D., editor. 2001. Nevada rare plant atlas [with rare plant fact sheets]. Available as a pdf file at: http://heritage.nv.gov/atlas/atlas.html. Compiled by the Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Reno, Nevada.

  • Mozingo, H.N. and M. Williams. 1980. The threatened and endangered plants of Nevada. Portland, Oregon: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Reno, Nevada: Bureau of Land Management. 268 pp.

  • Mozingo, H.N., and M. Williams. 1980. The threatened and endangered plants of Nevada. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Bureau of Land Management, Portland, OR. 268 pp.

  • Nevada Natural Heritage Program. 1986-present. Slide collection files. Carson City.

  • Nevada Natural Heritage Program. 1998-present. Index to available images (web page). Carson City: Nevada Natural Heritage Program public web site, http://heritage.nv.gov/images.htm.

  • Smithsonian Institution. 1980. Draft abstracts on rare plants. Unpublished. Perhaps 100 individual abstracts.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2009. Spotlight Species 5-Year Action Plan Castilleja salsuginosa. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Available at: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/action_plans/doc3004.pdf (Accessed Dec. 8, 2010).

  • Welsh, S. L. and D. Atwood. 1998. Report for morphological and DNA analyses of Castilleja salsuginosa (Monte Neva paintbrush) and related taxa. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, unpublished report prepared for the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, Oregon. 36+ pages including appendices.

  • Welsh, S. L. and D. Atwood. 1998. Report for morphological and DNA analyses of Castilleja salsuginosa (Monte Neva paintbrush) and related taxa. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, unpublished report prepared for the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, Oregon. 36+ pages including appendices.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.