Castilleja mollis - Pennell
Softleaf Indian-paintbrush
Other English Common Names: Soft-leaved Paintbrush
Other Common Names: softleaf Indian paintbrush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Castilleja mollis Pennell (TSN 33147)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135935
Element Code: PDSCR0D230
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Castilleja
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Castilleja mollis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Dec2015
Global Status Last Changed: 08Dec2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Known with certainty only from Santa Rosa Island off the coast of southern California (in the past, the species may have occurred on San Miguel Island as well). It occurs in coastal bluff scrub and dunes (CNPS 2001). Currently, it is known from only 2-3 extant locations. Populations are threatened by habitat degredation and predation from cattle grazing, elk and deer browsing, and deer bedding. The extensive disturbance caused by these non-native mammals has also exacerbated the spread of non-native plants on the islands; competition with agressive exotic plants is an additional threat to the species' survival. All the northern Channel Islands have suffered loss and degradation of their soils and major changes in their plant communities due to the large numbers of non-native mammals introduced to the islands starting in the early 1800's. Since the late 1990s, cattle have been removed, and elk and deer have been reduced.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (31Jul1997)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Confined to the Califonia Channel Islands, perhaps only Santa Rosa Island but possibly San Miguel Island as well. Not seen on San Miguel Island since 1938, despite recent surveys (CNDDB 2017).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are seven occurrences but four are historic.

Population Size Comments: In 2000 (USFWS), the number of individuals were estimated at 1000 individuals in Jaw Gulch population and several thousand in Carrington Point population.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The foreseeable threat with the greatest impact is alien species. The most severe threat is deer and elk trampling and uprooting through scraping during rutting season (USFWS 2000). Other threats are soil loss, competition with iceplant and other non-native plants, and possibly hybirdization with Castilleja affinis at Carrington Point (USFWS 2000). Feral herbivores have been removed from the islands.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Not seen on San Miguel Island since 1938, despite recent surveys (CNPS 2001).

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Disturbances which unstabilize dunes will threaten this species with increased competion from exotics and loss of habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Confined to the Califonia Channel Islands, perhaps only Santa Rosa Island but possibly San Miguel Island as well. Not seen on San Miguel Island since 1938, despite recent surveys (CNDDB 2017).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Santa Barbara (06083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Santa Barbara Channel Islands (18060014)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A shrubby, hemiparasitic, perennial herb with soft-woolly, grayish-green foliage. The highly branched plants are somewhat prostrate, usually reaching only 3+ dm high. Inflorescences (April-August) have yellow bracts (the bracts much more conspicuous than the flowers).
Technical Description: Plant shrubby, the foliage covered by a soft tomentum of branched and mostly glandless hairs, the stem villose-hirsute (especially in inflorescence) with spreading glandless and partially gland-tipped hairs. Stems diffusely much branched, semi-prostrate, at least 3 dm. tall, with short axillary shoots; upper leaves and bracts are greyish, fleshy, broad and rounded (obovate to obvate), and crowded at the apex. Bract and calyx yellow to yellowish- green above, obovoid, distally rounded or three-toothed; calyx 16-17 mm. long, cleft medianly more than 2/5s its length, laterally 2 mm. into ovate acute lobes; corolla 17-18 mm. long, its galea 7-8 mm. long, truncate, strongly pubescent dorsally, with wide, pale, thin margins, its lower lip 2 mm. long, appressed, green, rudimentary.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Dense indument of branched hairs, semi-prostrate habit; bracts and leaves that are grayish, fleshy, broad and rounded (obovate to ovate) and crowded at the apex; bract and calyx yellow to yellowish green above.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Known Pests: FERAL HERBIVORES AND CATTLE.
Ecology Comments: From known ocurrences seems to prefer sandy substrates within coastal scrub vegetation. This plant occasionlly hybridizes with Castilleja affinis.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Stabilized and partially stabilized coastal dunes with coastal scrub associates. Probable host is goldenbush (Isocoma menziesii var. sedoides).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This C1 species is currently threatened by feral herbivores, cattle and competition from iceplant. Needs include fencing habitat from grazers and removing iceplant.
Restoration Potential: If seeds could be obtained this species may be successfully re-introduced to suitable habitat.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Requires stabilized and partially stabilized sand dunes in a coastal sage scrub habitat.
Management Requirements: Grazing should be restricted from habitat. Cattle and deer threaten plant by eating and disruption of sand dune stabilization. Iceplant must be controlled.
Monitoring Requirements: The currently known sites for this element and historic sites should be regularly monitored. Additional sites in suitable habitat should be identified for other populations or suitable restoration sites.
Management Research Needs: Much more about this species basic biology should be learned; Pollination vectors, dispersal vectors, associates and competitors all need more study.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Oct2017
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Michael Schindel (1995), rev. Maybury (1997), rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. Treher (2017)
Management Information Edition Date: 06Jul1995
Management Information Edition Author: Michael Schindel
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Jul1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): MICHAEL SCHINDEL

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Abrams, L. 1951. Illustrated flora of the Pacific states: Washington, Oregon, and California. Vol. 3. Geraniaceae to Scrophulariaceae. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 866 pp.

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). 2017. RareFind Version  5.2.14. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

  • Heckard, L. 1991. Status and description of Castilleja mollis. Madrono 38(2).

  • Ingram, S. W. 1990. An examination of Castilleja mollis and its distribution. Univ. California, Santa Barbara. 27 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Munz, P.A. 1968. Supplement to a California flora. Univ. California Press. Berkeley. 224 pp.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1994. California Native Plant Society's Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 5th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 338 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1995. Proposed rule for 16 plant taxa from the northern Channel Islands, California. Federal Register 60(142): 37993-38010.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Final rule for 13 plant taxa from the northern Channel Islands, California. Federal Register 62(147): 40954-40974.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2000. Thirteen plant taxa from the northern Channel Islands recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, Oregon.

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