Castilleja levisecta - Greenm.
Golden Indian-paintbrush
Other English Common Names: Golden Paintbrush
Other Common Names: golden Indian paintbrush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Castilleja levisecta Greenm. (TSN 33137)
French Common Names: castilléjie dorée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136348
Element Code: PDSCR0D1S0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Castilleja
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Castilleja levisecta
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species, in a genus of 150-200 species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Apr2017
Global Status Last Changed: 27Apr2017
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: A rare regional endemic, historically known west of the Cascades from southern British Columbia to central Oregon, but now extirpated from many of its historic localities, and known from only 11 populations. The extant populations face ongoing threats including development, herbivory by native animals and introduced rabbits, invasion of non-native plants, and habitat modification due to succession in the absence of fire.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (26Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Oregon (SX), Washington (S2)
Canada British Columbia (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (11Jun1997)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific
Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (30Nov2007)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: The species is a perennial hemiparasitic herb of maritime meadows found within the Garry oak ecosystem of southeastern Vancouver Island. The species has lost most of its historic populations, having once been known from 7 locations. One small population was extirpated in recent years. The species is presently reduced to two populations on two small islands in the Victoria area. The spread of invasive alien plants continues to place the species at risk on Trial Island.

Status history: Designated Threatened in April 1995. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2000 and in November 2007.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Currently known only from a few islands near the east end of the Straits of Juan de Fuca, a single site near Olympia, Washington, and two islands outside of Victoria in British Columbia (Wentworth, not dated; Arnett 2009). Historically known from low elevations west of the Cascades from Vancouver Island south through the Puget Trough of Washington to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.

Area of Occupancy:  
Area of Occupancy Comments: The total area which the species occupies is probably much less than 1000 acres.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Eleven populations remain (Arnett 2009). There are 12 extant occurrences (10 in Washington, 2 in British Columbia), and four experimental reintroductions in Oregon.

Population Size Comments: Populations range from 10s to 1000s of individuals.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include invasion by Douglas fir and the non-native Scot's broom, increasing cover of native shrubs, trampling, herbivory by deer, rabbits or other mammals, and development (WANHP and BLM 1997; Wentworth, not dated)..

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: The taxon is apparenly extirpated from Oregon and southwest Washington. Extant occurrences face ongoing threats.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: In Washington State, only three percent of the original extent of native grasslands are estimated to remain (Arnett 2009).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Does not tolerate grazing. There is limited evidence of colonization following disturbance.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Currently known only from a few islands near the east end of the Straits of Juan de Fuca, a single site near Olympia, Washington, and two islands outside of Victoria in British Columbia (Wentworth, not dated; Arnett 2009). Historically known from low elevations west of the Cascades from Vancouver Island south through the Puget Trough of Washington to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ORextirpated, WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OR Benton (41003)*, Linn (41043)*, Marion (41047)*, Polk (41053)*
WA Clark (53011)*, Island (53029), Jefferson (53031)*, King (53033)*, Kitsap (53035)*, Pierce (53053)*, San Juan (53055), Skagit (53057)*, Thurston (53067)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+*, Upper Willamette (17090003)+*, Middle Willamette (17090007)+*, Molalla-Pudding (17090009)+*, Lower Willamette (17090012)+*, Upper Chehalis (17100103)+, San Juan Islands (17110003)+, Nisqually (17110015)+*, Hood Canal (17110018)+*, Puget Sound (17110019)+, Dungeness-Elwha (17110020)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, usually less than 3 dm tall. Probably somewhat parasitic. Flower spikes with showy, bright yellow bracts bloom from April to June (bracts are more conspicuous than than the flower petals).
General Description: Multistemmed perennial covered with soft, somewhat sticky hairs. Flower bracts are about the same width as the upper leaves and are a brilliant golden to yellow color.
Technical Description: Stems from a short branching base, simple, erect, or a little decumbent below, 2.5-5 dm high, puberulent; leaves narrowly oblong, mostly with 1-4 pair of short narrow lobes above the middle, 2-3.5 cm long, closely ascending; inflorescence not dense; bracts bright yellow terminally, sometimes tinged with reddish-orange, oblong, with 1 or 2 pair of short lobes and equaling or surpassing the flowers; calyx villous, 2 cm long, medially cleft about one-third its length, the lateral lobes oblong, rounded, 3 mm long; corolla a little longer than the calyx, the galea nearly half as long as the galea, the middle lobe shorter than the lateral (Peck, 1961).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Castilleja levisecta may be characterized by brilliant golden to yellow flower bracts (Sheehan and Schuller, 1981).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Open grasslands at elevations below 100 m. Often on glacial outwash or deposits. Low intensity fires may be important in maintaining the native grassland habitat of this species.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Jan1992
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gamon, J.G., WANHP botanist, rev. Gamon/Maybury (1996), rev. A. Tomaino (2009), rev. A. Tomaino (2017)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Jun1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): RUSSELL, C., REV. J. GAMON

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Arnett, J. 2009. Conservation of golden paintbrush. Landscope. Online. Available: http://www.landscope.org/washington/plants-animals/conserving_plants-animals/castilleja_levisecta/ (accessed 2009).

  • B.C. Ministry of Environment. Recovery Planning in BC. B.C. Minist. Environ. Victoria, BC. Available: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/recoveryplans/rcvry1.htm

  • Caplow, F. 2004. Reintroduction plan for golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta). Prepared for the US Fish and Wildl. Serv., Western Washington Fish and Wildl. Office. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Washington Dep. of Natural Resour. Olympia, WA. 44 pp + appendices.

  • Caplow, F.E. 2003. The Reintroduction Planning Process for Golden Paintbrush, a Threatened Prairie Species of the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley. The Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources. in T.N. Kaye et al., eds. Proceedings of a Conference on Native Plant Restoration and Management on Public Lands in the Pacific Northwest: Rare Plants, Invasive Species, and Ecosystem Management. Corvallis, Oregon, Feb. 11-13, 2003. pp.6-7.

  • Chappell, C. and F. Caplow. 2004. Site characteristics of golden paintbrush populations. Natural Heritage Rep. 2004-03. Rep. to U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Region 1. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia, WA. 58 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2000. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 5, Dicotyledons (Salicaceae through Zygophyllaceae) and Pteridophytes. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 389pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, and D. Meidinger, eds. 1998. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Conserv. Data Centre, Resour. Inventory Branch, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria.

  • Douglas, G.W., and M. Ryan. 1999. Status of the Golden Paintbrush, Castilleja levisecta (Scrophulariaceae) in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 113(2):299-301.

  • Fairbarns, M. 2005e. Demographic and Phenological Patterns of Castilleja levisecta (Golden Paintbrush). Aruncus Consulting, 776 Falkland Road, Victoria, BC.

  • Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; availability of a draft recovery plan for the golden paintbrush for review and comment. Federal Register 64(64):16478.

  • Gamon, J., P. Dunwiddie & T. Thomas.  2000.  Recovery plan for the golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta).  U.S. Fish and Widlife Service, Portland, Oregon.  51 pp.

  • Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team. 2003. Castilleja levisecta (edit 2010). In: Species at risk in Garry oak and associated ecosystems in British Columbia. Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, Victoria, British Columbia.

  • Hitchcock, C.L., and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest: An Illustrated Manual. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington. 730 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lawrence, B. and T. Kaye. 2008. Direct and indirect effects of host plants: implications for reintroduction of an endangered hemiparasitic plant (Castilleja levisecta). Madrono: 55(2): 151-158.

  • Maslovat, C. 2009. Guidelines for Translocation of Plant Species at Risk in British Columbia. B.C. Minist. of Environ. Victoria, BC.

  • Meinke, R.J. 1982. Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of Oregon: An Illustrated Guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, Oregon. 326 pp.

  • Parks Canada Agency. 2006c. Recovery Strategy for Multi-species at Risk in Maritime Meadows Associated with Garry Oak Ecosystems in Canada. In: Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Ottawa: Parks Canada Agency. 93 pps.

  • Peck, M.E. 1961. A manual of the higher plants of Oregon. 2nd edition. Binsford & Mort, Portland, Oregon. 936 pp.

  • Ryan, M., and G.W. Douglas. 1995. Status Report on Golden Paintbrush, Castilleja levisecta, in Canada. Unpubl. rep. submitted to the Comm. on the Status of Endangered Wildl. in Can. Ottawa. 26pp.

  • Ryan, M.W., and G.W. Douglas. 1999. Status of Golden Paintbrush in British Columbia. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. Bull. B-91. 20pp.

  • Sheehan, M. and N. Sprague. 1984. Report of the status of Castilleja levisecta Greenman. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Thomas, T., F. Caplow, P. Dunwiddie, and S. Pearson. 2003. Recovery Efforts for Golden Paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta). In T.N. Kaye et al., eds. Proceedings of a Conference on Native Plant Restoration and Management on Public Lands in the Pacific Northwest: Rare Plants, Invasive Species, and Ecosystem Management, Corvallis, Oregon, Feb. 11-13, 2003. p. 49.


  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Proposed threatened status for Castilleja levisecta. Federal Register 59(89): 24106-24112.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2000. Recovery plan for the Golden Paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta). U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Portland, Oregon. 51 pp.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program and U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management. 1997. Field guide to selected rare plants of Washington. Online. Available: http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/htm/fsfgabc.htm (accessed 2009).

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1981. An illustrated guide to the endangered, threatened and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia. 328 pp.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1994. Endangered, threatened and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington. 52 pp.

  • Wentworth, J.B. Not dated. Castilleja levisectaa, a threatened South Puget Sound prairie species. Online. Available: http://www.southsoundprairies.org/tech/Castilleja%20levisecta%20-%20a%20threatened.pdf (accessed 2009).

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