Castilleja christii - N. Holmgren
Christ's Indian-paintbrush
Other English Common Names: Christ's Paintbrush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Castilleja christii N. Holmgren (TSN 501321)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134319
Element Code: PDSCR0D0D0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
Image 10809

© Idaho Conservation Data Center

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Castilleja
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Castilleja christii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Dec2010
Global Status Last Changed: 02Apr1990
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Christ's Indian paintbrush is known from only one population covering roughly 200 acres near the summit of Mount Harrison in southern Idaho. The population probably supports at least 1,000,000 individuals. Even though this species' population numbers seem to fluctuate widely, it is believed to be declining, based on short term trend information. It has been searched for unsuccessfully on nearby peaks and ranges. The Sawtooth National Forest has taken a number of steps to reduce ground disturbance activities and other threats within the population over the years. The recent establishment of smooth brome within the population is a potentially serious threat to Christ's Indian paintbrush and its habitat. Control of this aggressive non-native grass will be a large management challenge.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (S1)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: Castilleja christii was a federal candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act. In the November 21, 2012 Federal Register, Castilleja christii was removed as a candidate. "The overall C. christii population is currently stable throughout a large portion of its range. The U.S. Forest Service has successfully implemented numerous conservation actions that have ameliorated most of the previously known threats and established longterm monitoring programs to document their effectiveness on conservation actions. Recent research by Boise State University has demonstrated that hybridization is not a factor affecting C. christii. Finally, the species' estimated population is much larger- by as much as two orders of magnitude -than earlier estimates had indicated. The species no longer meets our definition of a threatened or endangered species, and we have removed it from candidate status" (USFWS 2012).
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Christ's Indian paintbrush is known from only a single occurrence near the summit of Mount Harrison, in the Albion Mountain Range, south of Burley, in Cassia County, Idaho.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The Christ's Indian paintbrush occurrences atop Mount Harrison is approximately 81 ha (200 ac) in size. The southern limit of the occurrence begins approximately (250 ft) north of the summit lookout tower and continues north for roughly 1.2 km (0.75 mi). The east-west extent of the occurrence is slightly >1.6 km (1 mi) in width.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Christ's Indian paintbrush is known from a single occurrence located near the summit of Mount Harrison in Cassia County, Idaho. Searches on adjacent peaks and mountain ranges have not found any additional populations (Holmgren 1973; Moseley 1993).

Population Size Comments: The size of the Christ's Indian paintbrush population at Mount Harrison is not fully known. Estimates have varied by more than an order of magnitude. Approximately 10,000 plants were estimated following a thorough field survey (Moseley 1993), compared to an estimate of nearly 4,000,000 plants based on plant density monitoring results (Moseley 1996). It is clearly a large population and probably contains at least 1,000,000 individuals. Population declines between 1995 and 2007 were reported by the U.S. FWS (2010).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: The one known occurrence at Mount Harrison is large and occurs in a landscape that is mostly intact.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat loss and degradation are the most serious threat to the long-term conservation of Christ's Indian paintbrush. The largest direct loss of Christ's Indian paintbrush habitat can be attributed to the construction of several roads, and may amount to a few hectares. The paved road to the lookout atop Mount Harrison (Howell Canyon Road) roughly bisects the Christ's Indian paintbrush population. Several dirt roads branch off near the summit and traverse through parts of the population. In addition to the roads, a fire lookout tower, an underground vault, buried power cable, and an education/interpretative trail and associated toilet facilities and parking lot, are located near the summit of Mount Harrison. It is unclear how much, if any habitat formerly occupied by Christ's Indian paintbrush was lost due to construction of these structures and features.

Christ's Indian paintbrush does not occur around the Forest Service fire lookout, and no individuals were impacted when the tower was reconstructed in 1977. A large underground vault was constructed by the military during the 1960s, but later abandoned. The area around the vault was disturbed during construction and no Christ's Indian paintbrush is presently found in this area. During 1969-70, an underground power cable was installed from a point near the lookout, north to a nearby electronic site. Christ's Indian paintbrush has since re-established along the section of cable route cutting through the population. In 1995, a replacement cable was buried along a new route near the edge of the population. Monitoring indicates Christ's Indian paintbrush has begun to re-established within the buried cable swath (Mancuso 2001). Construction of the interpretive walkway parking lot, and toilet facilities located near the fire lookout was completed in 2000. Signs to educate the public about the unique plant species and communities, and to discourage visitors from picking wildflowers in the area are posted along the interpretive walkway.

Major human activities in the Mount Harrison area include recreation and operations associated with the fire lookout. Recreational activities are seasonally important and account for a large influx of people during the summer and fall months. In addition to the main paved road, several two-track, unimproved roads leading to an electronic site, hangglider launch sites, and other places, go through parts of the paintbrush population. The Forest Service restricts vehicle traffic to established roads, but in the past ample evidence indicated this was ignored at times, with people driving through parts of the Christ's Indian paintbrush population. This problem has been reduced in recent years due to the Forest Service placing large rocks/boulders which serve as barriers along the dirt roads to discourage off-road use. Disturbance to paintbrush habitat still occurs some years from vehicles leaving the main road to drive around late-lying snow banks that block access to the lookout and nearby electronic site. Due to extensive churning by pocket gophers, the vehicles can sink deep into the soil and create large erosion channels.

The summit plateau of Mount Harrison, including the entire area occupied by Christ's Indian paintbrush is closed to livestock grazing. Although trespass cattle grazing within the population continues to be a conservation issue, additional fencing has recently been constructed to try and minimize cattle access (Kim Pierson, Sawtooth National Forest botanist, pers.comm.). Trampling and associated ground disturbance, more than direct grazing by cattle is the main concern. Before conservation measures for Christ's Indian paintbrush were initiated, the population area was open to livestock grazing for many years. The effects of past livestock grazing, if any, on the Christ's's Indian paintbrush population are not known.

Smooth brome (Bromus inermis) is an aggressive non-native grass that has become established within the Christ's Indian paintbrush population in recent years. It was introduced as part of the seed mix planted when the main road was paved in 1997. The smooth brome appears to be increasing within the paintbrush population and the Sawtooth National Forest has initiated weed control measures to limit further habitat degradation (Kim Pierson, Sawtooth National Forest botanist, pers. comm.).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Christ's Indian paintbrush population vigor, and the overall quality of the species' remaining habitat at Mount Harrison appears to be good (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995), however, in 2010 a Federal Register document noted that the species has shown a decline from 1995 until 2007 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). A monitoring program was initiated in 1995 (Moseley 1996). Plant density, stem abundance, as well as plant community data have been collected several other years since then (Moseley 1997, Moseley 1998, Mancuso 2001, Mancuso 2003). The annual total number of Christ's Indian paintbrush plants on the monitoring transect has varied from 1769 to 2398 individuals. The annual average number of reproductive stems/plant has varied from a high of 6.6, to a low of 0.8. The Sawtooth National Forest collected monitoring data in 2003 and 2004, but the analysis is not yet available (K. Pierson, Sawtooth National Forest botanist, pers. comm.). Monitoring results showed the annual abundance of Christ's's Indian paintbrush is dynamic, and fluctuations in plant density do occur. No clear upward or downward trend in plant abundance occurred during the monitoring in the 2003-2004 timespan, however, reports from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service indicate that the species has declined (2010). Annual reproductive output, as measured by the number of reproductive stems/plant can also fluctuate greatly (Mancuso 2003). It has been speculated that environmental factors (mainly precipitation totals and patterns) rather than biological, habitat, or management problems are responsible for much, if not all of the annual abundance variability for Christ's Indian paintbrush (Mancuso 2003).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: No long-term population or habitat condition trend information is available for Christ's Indian paintbrush. The species was not described until 1973 (Holmgren 1973). There is no evidence that populations other than at Mount Harrison have ever existed. Assessment of its distribution, abundance, and habitat at Mount Harrison did not begin until the 1980s (Atwood 1985). Some habitat is known to have been lost due to road construction (USFWS, 2004). A monitoring program for Christ's Indian paintbrush has been in place only since 1995 (Moseley 1996).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Christ's Indian paintbrush is probably moderately vulnerable to natural or anthropogenic stresses. Monitoring has shown this species has the capacity to recolonize small sections of disturbed habitat within five years (Mancuso 2001). It is unclear if this relatively rapid recolonization would extend to situations where plants were eliminated from a large area of occupied habitat.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Christ's Indian paintbrush occurs in subalpine snowbed, graminoid, and mountain big sagebrush community types (Moseley 1993). These three community types are not rare or geographically restricted in Intermountain Region mountain ranges. The extent of the open, northerly-facing slope below the summit of Mount Harrison supporting the paintbrush population is not matched anywhere else in the Albion Range, however. Castilleja species are hemiparasitic, dependent on the roots of one or more hosts for water, nutrients, or photosynthates to augment its growth. Research to identify the one or more host plant species for Christ's Indian paintbrush is needed.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Christ's Indian paintbrush is known from only a single occurrence near the summit of Mount Harrison, in the Albion Mountain Range, south of Burley, in Cassia County, Idaho.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID

Range Map
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U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Cassia (16031)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Christ's Indian paintbrush is a perennial forb up to 3 dm tall with gland-tipped hairs in the inflorescence and flowers largely concealed by conspicuous yellow- to orange-yellow-colored bracts. Multiple stems emanate from the base of the plant and leaves are lance-shaped, usually having a pair of narrow, lateral segments.
Technical Description: Perennial herb, 1.5-3 dm tall; stems erect to ascending, usually unbranched, several to a cluster; herbage glabrous to hispid with some of the hairs gland-tipped near the inflorescence; leaves 2.5 (6)cm long, narrowly to broadly lanceolate, with 1(2) pair of lateral lobes above, sometimes all entire; inflorescence glandular-villous, yellow to yellow-orange, the bracts lanceolate to ovate, with 1 or 2 pairs of narrow lateral lobes; calyx 17-22(24) mm long, the primary lobes more deeply cleft in front, 9-12(13) mm, than behind, 7-11 mm, the segments 2-6.5(8.5) mm long, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, acute to obtuse; corolla 20-30 mm long, the galea 8-11 mm long, the lower lip much reduced with incurved teeth, the tube 12-19 mm long; capsule 10-14 mm long (Holmgren 1984).
Diagnostic Characteristics: At Mount Harrison, no other species of Castilleja has a yellow- to yellow-orange-colored inflorescence with gland-tipped hairs (Moseley 1993). Other diagnostic features include the galea being at least 8 mm long, the calyx being slightly more deeply cleft in front than in the back, and the lanceolate-shaped leaves with usually one pair of narrow lateral segments.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: C. christii reproduces by seed, but there is no information concerning seed dispersal or seed bank dynamics. No specific pollinators have been documented. Seed germination studies conducted by the Denver Botanical Garden indicate C. christii has a strong dormancy. It is speculated seeds may require prolonged (three months or longer) cool and moist conditions to germinate (Dawson 1984).
Known Pests: NO DISEASES OR PESTS HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED FOR THIS SPECIES.
Ecology Comments: No detailed information is known regarding the autecology of C. christii. The one known population occurs in an area where deep snows accumulate, that in some places some years, may last the summer. These sites tend to be fed by late-lying snow during the early part of the growing season, and likely remain moist well into August most years. This paintbrush species is sympatric with Davis' wavewing, Cymopterus davisii, another rare plant. Apparently, the Mount Harrison area was heavily grazed by sheep years ago, but it is unknown what effects, if any, this had on the paintbrush population. The density of paintbrush is inversely related to the density of mountain big sagebrush shrubs and may indicate a level of shade intolerance. Nothing is known regarding the hemiparasitic relationship between C. christii and its host(s).

Plant growth begins slightly before or soon after the snow melts in early July. Peak flowering occurs from mid-July to mid-August, depending on annual weather patterns. Fruits begin to mature soon after pollination and probably dehisce by mid-September.

Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: C. christii is restricted to treeless subalpine habitats on a single mountain. It occurs almost exclusively on gentle, northerly-facing slopes between 2620 - 2800 m elevation. Loamy-skeletal soils predominate. It is only rarely found in deep soils on south- and west-facing slopes (Moseley 1993).

Plants are found in three distinct communities: (1) The paintbrush reaches its highest density in a grass meadow community dominated by Festuca idahoensis, and Elymus trachycaulus; (2) A forb-dominated snowbed community in areas of the latest-lying snowbanks. In this community, Solidago multiradiata, Erigeron peregrinus, Lupinus argenteus, and Cymopterus davisii are the most prominent forbs, while Castilleja christii occurs at moderate densities; (3) A sagebrush community representative of the Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana/Festuca idahoensis habitat type supports a low density of C. christii, the density of the paintbrush being inversely related to that of the sagebrush. Much of the area covered by this community on the mountain is patterned ground. The paintbrush occurs in openings within the sagebrush or in the nearly shrubless swales of the patterned ground.

Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: There are no known economic uses for this species.
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Castilleja christii is a rare plant known from only a single population. Portions of this population have been disturbed in the past, and past road construction projects have destroyed some habitat. Segments of the population and its supporting habitat remain vulnerable to threats associated with recreational activities including access and facility development, improvement, or maintenance proposals (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995).
Species Impacts: Castilleja species are hemiparasitic. It is not known with which species or possibly group of species C. christii may form such a hemiparasitic relationship, or the impacts it may have on them.
Restoration Potential: C. christii has recolonized an area previously disturbed by the installation of an underground power cable. It also occurs on fill slopes along the road to the lookout tower. Both of these situations represent relatively small-scale disturbances with an ample seed source located nearby. This indicates natural re-establishment is possible given sufficient time and protection from further major disturbances.

The potential to restore degraded paintbrush habitat is probably related to the degree of disturbance. Restoration would probably be a slow process due to the short growing season and generally harsh environmental conditions at Mount Harrison. One factor in favor of successful restoration potential is that following disturbance, the subapline habitats of C. christii are less vulnerable to invasion by weedy exotics than many lower elevation habitats.

As a group, paintbrushes are difficult to propagate from seed and have a low survival rate for transplants. There is no specific information regarding the propagation of C. christii. Preliminary seed dormancy studies suggest this species has a strong dormancy (Dawson 1994). These factors would make it difficult to artificially reintroduce C. christii to a site.

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserve design is not applicable for C. christii because this species is known only from a single population that occurs entirely on U.S. Forest Service land. Conservation considerations for this species need to address the entire population and its habitat.
Management Requirements: Because the one known population is located on the Sawtooth National Forest, the Forest has primary management responsibility for C. christii. Due to its rarity and the numerous disturbances that take place on Mount Harrison's summit plateau, a Conservation Agreement for C. christii was signed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Sawtooth National Forest (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995). The principal objectives of the Conservation Agreement are to protect the paintbrush's habitat, remove threats, and maintain population vigor.

The Agreement enumerates management actions that the Forest Service will be responsible for. Several responsibilities focus on the identification and implementation of actions that will reduce existing and potential threats to C. christii. Problems related to off road use, recreational access, and development projects are some of the specific issues management has, and will continue to address. The Agreement also dictates that C. christii remain on the Forest Service's Region 4 Sensitive Species list. It is also important that the Sawtooth National Forest maintain its commitment to the monitoring program now in place (Moseley 1996). The primary role of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will be to provide technical assistance and develop studies and research projects that will further the implementation of the Conservation Agreement.

Monitoring Requirements: Various disturbances, mostly related to recreational use at Mount Harrison are the main threat to C. christii and its habitat. Collecting population and habitat trend information over many years is the preferred way to monitor the long-term conservation status of the one known population.

Management Programs: The one known population of C. christii occurs entirely on U.S. Forest Service land. Due to its very restricted range, specific habitat requirements, and increasing recreational pressures around the population, any further destruction of habitat could potentially affect the long-term viability of C. christii. The Conservation Agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Sawtooth National Forest was designed to address these concerns (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995). Key contacts for the Conservation Agreement are the U.S. Forest Service, Burley Ranger District, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Snake River Field Office. The Conservation Agreement provides regulatory protection for the species. It includes 21 proposed conservation actions for which the U.S. Forest Service are responsible, and three for which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are responsible.

Establishment of the Mount Harrison Research Natural Area (RNA) was identified as one of the conservation actions in the Conservation Agreement. This occurred when the Forest Service established the RNA in 1996 (Mancuso and Evenden 1996). The RNA designation conveys special management status to an area that encompasses approximately 23% of the paintbrush population. Another conservation measure identified in the Conservation Agreement and subsequently instituted is the establishment of a monitoring program (Moseley 1996). The Forest Service keeps the gate on the road to the top of Mount Harrison locked until the snow is gone from the road. This is to prevent vehicles from driving through parts of the paintbrush population in order to get around late-lying snowbanks blocking the road.

Other management directives include continued cooperation with the Denver Botanical Garden to maintain an off-site seed storage program, continuation of the livestock grazing closure in the summit area, the completion of a Mineral Withdrawal for the population area, development of an interpretive program, and the support of studies researching the species' biology and ecology. Measures addressing problems related to roads, planned developments, and access are also covered in the Conservation Agreement. Finally, several administrative measures are outlined in the Agreement.

C. christii is sympatric with another rare local endemic, Davis' wavewing (Cymopterus davisii). Shasta daisy (Machaeranthera shastensis var. latifolia) is another rare plant known from the the Mount Harrison area. The proposed conservation actions for C. christii will also benefit these other rare plants.

Monitoring Programs: Monitoring objectives for C. christii are outlined in the 1995 Conservation Agreement (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1995). A primary objective of the monitoring program is to monitor impacts to the population associated with recreational uses. The monitoring program is designed to collect both population and habitat trend information. Monitoring began in 1995, and is scheduled to be conducted annually for at least five consecutive years. The program was expanded in 1996 to include monitoring the recovery of paintbrush habitat and the rate of paintbrush re-establishment in an area disturbed when a buried electronic cable was laid through a small portion of the population in 1995(Moseley 1996; 1997; 1998). Key contacts regarding the monitoring program are the U.S. Forest Service, Burley Ranger District, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Snake River Field Office, and the Idaho Conservation Data Center in Boise, Idaho.
Management Research Programs: The single population of C. christii has a monitoring program in place to assess long-term population and habitat trends. The monitoring program uses permanent transects that were established in 1995. Transects are located in each of the three meadow and sagebrush community types supporting the paintbrush. Population sampling includes counting the number of C. christii plants and the number of sterile and reproductive stems comprising each plant in microplots located along a transect. Habitat data includes percent cover for every vascular plant species in a macroplot, as well as environmental features and general site description information. There are also photo points at each transect. Key contacts for the monitoring research are the Idaho Conservation Data Center and the Sawtooth National Forest, Burley Ranger District. There are no other research or monitoring programs for C. christii.
Management Research Needs: Research is needed to document the effects of disturbance, and the effects and effectiveness of mitigation measures to minimize or eliminate anthropogenic disturbances within the habitat of C. christii. A monitoring program to begin addressing some of these questions is already in place.
Additional topics: Individuals with extensive firsthand knowledgeable of this species and its habitat include Robert Moseley, Plant Ecologist, Idaho Conservation Data Center, Boise, Idaho; and Howard Hudak, Forest Wildlife Biologist, Sawtooth National Forest, Twin Falls, Idaho.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Size: At least 10,000 genets and occupying at least 4 ha (10 ac) of suitable habitat.
Condition: Aggressive, exotic plant species with <5% cover within the occurrence. Evidence of anthropogenic-related ground disturbance or other impacts affecting <5% of the occurrence area.
Landscape context: Surrounding landscape is largely unfragmented and in good ecological condition.

Good Viability: Size: At least 1000 genets and occupying at least 1 ha (2.5 ac) of suitable habitat.
Condition: Aggressive, exotic plant species with <20% cover within the occurrence. Evidence of anthropogenic-related ground disturbance or other impacts affecting <20% of the occurrence area.
Landscape context: Surrounding landscape is not greatly fragmented and the majority is in good ecological condition.

Fair Viability: Size: At least 100 genets and occupying at least 0.2 ha (0.5 ac) of suitable habitat.
Condition: Aggressive, exotic plant species with <30% cover within the occurrence. Evidence of anthropogenic-related ground disturbance or other impacts affecting <30% of the occurrence area.
Landscape context: Surrounding landscape may be fragmented and/or substantial segments may be in marginal ecological condition.

Poor Viability: Size: <100 genets or occupying <0.2 ha (0.5 ac).
Condition: Aggressive, exotic plant species with >30% cover within the occurrence. Evidence of anthropogenic-related ground disturbance or other impacts affecting >30% in the occurrence area.
Landscape context: Surrounding landscape may be strongly fragmented and/or substantial segments may be in poor ecological condition.

Justification: Christ's Indian paintbrush is known from only a single large population at Mount Harrison. The population is thought to contain at least 1,000,000 individuals and cover approximately 81 ha (200 ac). If any other occurrences are ever discovered they will likely be much smaller in size and extent.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Dec2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M. Mancuso (2005), rev. L. Oliver (2010)
Management Information Edition Date: 01Apr1998
Management Information Edition Author: MICHAEL MANCUSO
Management Information Acknowledgments: Much of the information contained in this ESA is the result of inventory and monitoring efforts conducted by the Idaho Conservation Data Center with Challenge Cost-share funding provided by the Sawtooth National Forest.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Apr1998
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M. MANCUSO, ID CDC

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Atwood, D. 1984. Updated status report for Castilleja christii. 5 pp.

  • Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1984. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 4, Subclass Asteridae (except Asteraceae). New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 573 pp.

  • Dawson, C. 1994. Results of seed testing for CASTILLEJA CHRISTII. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Boise Field Office, Boise, Idaho.

  • Holmgren, N. H. 1973. Five new species of Castilleja (Scrophulariaceae) from the Intermountain region. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 100(2): 83-93.

  • Holmgren, N.H. 1984. CASTILLEJA. Pages 476-496 in A. Cronquist, A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. Intermountain flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, USA. Volume 4. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mancuso, M. 2001. A fourth year of monitoring Christ's Indian paintbrush on the Sawtooth National Forest: 2000 results. Cooperative Challenge Cost Share Project, Sawtooth National Forest and Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. 19 pp. plus appendices.

  • Mancuso, M. 2003d. A fifth year of monitoring Christ's indian paintbrush (Castilleja christii) on the Sawtooth National Forest: 2002 results. Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. 18 pp. plus appendices.

  • Mancuso, M., and A.G. Evenden. 1996. Establishment record for Mount Harrison Research Natural Area within Sawtooth National Forest, Cassia County, Idaho. Prepared for U.S. Forest Service Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah. 21 pp., plus appendices and maps.

  • Marvier, M.A., and D.L. Smith. 1997. Conservation implications of host use for rare parisitic plants. Conservation Biology 11(4):839-848.

  • Moseley, R.K. 1993b. The status and distribution of Christ's Indian paintbrush (Castilleja christii) and Davis' wavewing (Cymopterus davisii) in the Albion Mountains, Sawtooth National Forest and City of Rocks National Reserve. Unpublished report on file at: Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Conservation Data Center, Boisie, Idaho.

  • Moseley, R.M. 1996c. Christ's Indian paintbrush (Castilleja christii) monitoring on the Sawtooth National Forest: transect establishment and baseline data. Unpublished report prepared for the Sawtooth National Forest, Twin Falls, Idaho. 16 pp.

  • Moseley, R.M. 1997. Christ's Indian paintbrush (CASTILLEJA CHRISTII) monitoring on the Sawtooth National Forest: second-year results. Unpublished report prepared for the Sawtooth National Forest, Twin Falls, Idaho. 8 pp.

  • Moseley, R.M. 1998. Christ's paintbrush monitoring on the Sawtooth National Forest: third-year results. Unpublished report prepared for the Sawtooth National Forest, Twin Falls, Idaho. 10 pp., plus appendices.

  • Packard, P. L. 1979. Status report for Castilleja christii. Prepared for U.S. Fish and and Wildlife Service. 5 pp.

  • Steele, B., F. Johnson, and S. Brunsfield, eds. 1981. Vascular plant species of concern in Idaho. Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID. 161 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Conservation agreement: Castilleja christii (Christ's Indian paintbrush). Unpublished report prepared by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho State Office. Not paged.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Castilleja christii. 12 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1995. Conservation Agreement CASTILLEJA CHRISTII/Christ's Indian paintbrush. Prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Field Office, Boise, Idaho.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 2010. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species that are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions;Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule. November 10, 2010. Federal Register 75(217): 69221-69294.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 2012. Review of native species that are candidates for listing as endangered or threatened; Annual notice of findings on resubmitted petitions; Annual description of progress on listing actions. Federal Register 77(225): 69994-70060.

  • U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Region (USFS). 1990. Idaho and Wyoming endangered and sensitive plant field guide. U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 192 pp.

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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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