Castanea pumila var. pumila
Allegheny Chinquapin
Other English Common Names: Chinquapin
Other Common Names: chinquapin
Synonym(s): Castanea pumila (L.) P. Mill.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Castanea pumila (L.) P. Mill. (TSN 19457) ;Castanea pumila var. pumila (L.) P. Mill. (TSN 527191)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.145121
Element Code: PDFAG01041
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Beech Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fagales Fagaceae Castanea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Castanea pumila var. pumila
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T5?
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Mar1995
Global Status Last Changed: 11Aug1995
Rounded Global Status: T5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread, fairly common, possibly threatened by chestnut blight.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5?

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Delaware (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Kentucky (S1S2), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SU), New Jersey (SNR), New York (SNR), North Carolina (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southern New Jersey and Pennsylvania, south to central Florida, west to eastern West Virginia, southern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas; also reported from Missouri, New York, and Massachussetts. Uncommon within the range of Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Possibly threatened by chestnut blight. Land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation are moderate threats to this species (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Affected by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). The blight kills the plant down to the roots, which resprout. Hightshoe (1988) lists this disease as an "occasional" problem.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southern New Jersey and Pennsylvania, south to central Florida, west to eastern West Virginia, southern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas; also reported from Missouri, New York, and Massachussetts. Uncommon within the range of Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Shrub to small tree with toothed leaves, usually densely hairy beneath, and smooth brown nuts borne in very prickly burs about 1 and 1/2 inches across.
General Description: Shrub to small tree with toothed leaves, usually densely hairy beneath, and smooth brown nuts borne in very prickly burs about 1 and 1/2 inches across.
Technical Description: Deciduous shrub, or tree to about 20m tall (the shrubby form commonly with subterranean runners and forming extensive clones). Stems of young, developing shoots varying from densely gray-tomentose to thinly pubescent with longish hairs, to ashy-pubescent, to glabrous. Woody twigs round or slightly fluted, brown and dotted with small, paler lenticels; axillary buds 2-4 mm long, ovoid, dark brown, few-scaled; terminal bud none. Trunks of small trees gray and smooth, becoming slightly to moderately dark and shallowly furrowed as they enlarge. Leaves alternate, usually 2-ranked, stipulate; stipules membranous, ovate, linear, lanceolate, or oblong (often all on a single branch), quickly deciduous. Petioles 0.3-1.2 cm long. Blades pinnately-veined, the major lateral veins angling-ascending parallel to each other and ending in the marginal teeth; variable in shape, elliptic, oblong-elliptic, lance-elliptic, oblong, oblanceolate or obovate, rarely ovate, predominantly, however, broadest above their middles, proximally mostly cuneate to a usually rounded base, apically rounded, rarely emarginate, to acute or short-acuminate, from about 4.5-15 (18) cm long and 1.5-8 cm broad; margins serrate or dentate-serrate, teeth often abruptly narrowed to bristlelike tips; upper surfaces usually glabrous, infrequently sparsely pubescent along the midrib, lower surfaces densely and compactly tomentose, densely but more loosely tomentose and velvety to the touch, varying to glabrous. Flowers fragrant, unisexual, plants monoecious. Inflorescences axillary to leaves on shoots of the season, produced in late spring or early summer when all but the distal leaves on a given shoot are fully grown; most inflorescences bearing many staminate flowers, these in axils of leaves proximally and medially on the shoots, relatively elongate and narrow, erect, ascending, or spreading; other inflorescences essentially similar but usually shorter and more distal on the branch and bearing a few pistillate flowers at the base; other inflorescences less conspicuous, usually in axils of less fully developed leaves distally on a branch, the flowers pistillate. Corolla none. Staminate flowers mostly in clusters of 3-7 (some solitary on the axis), the cluster or flower subtended by a minute, ovate bract; calyx of (5) 6 (8) ovate sepals in 2 series, stamens usually 12 in one cycle. Pistillate flowers 1-3 at a given position on the axis, surrounded by bracts, each flowers with an urnlike calyx with 6 short lobes, the pistil (4) 6 (9) carpellate, with as many spreading styles, each hairy below and tipped by a minute, punctiform stigma. Fruit a conical, chestnut-brown nut about 7-20 mm long and about as broad basally, enclosed in a 2-valved globose or ellipsoid bur densely to openly covered with branched, short-pubescent, sharp spines 4-17 mm long. [Includes C. ashei Sudw. in Ashe; C. floridana (Sarg.) Ashe; C. alnifolia Nutt.] (Godfrey 1988)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Easily distinguished from C. dentata by leaves (larger and glabrous beneath in C. dentata) and fruits (larger and with more than one nut per fruit in C. dentata), although there is a hybrid, C. x neglecta. The "C. pumila complex" of the southeastern U.S. is now generally deemed to consist of only one species with 2 varieties. The currently accepted C. pumila var. pumila includes plants formerly known as C. alnifolia (C. pumila var. alnifolia), C. ashei (C. pumila var. ashei), C. floridana (C. alnifolia var. floridana), and C. margaretta. In its typical form, var. pumila is separated from var. ozarkensis by (1) pubescent branchlets (vs. smooth or only finely hairy); (2) undersides of leaves densely white-hairy (vs. minutely pubescent to glabrate beneath); (3) leaf teeth smaller, 1-3 mm long (vs. 3-8 mm long); (4) fruiting involucres 2-2.5 cm in diameter, their spines 3-7 mm long (vs. 2.3-3 cm in diameter, their spines 1-1.3 cm long); (5) habit: usually shrub, sometimes small tree (vs. more often a tree, and larger - to 20 m high). (Fernald 1950, Elias 1980) However, some of the more southern forms ("C. alnifolia" and "C. floridana") vary toward ozarkensis in degree of pubescence, size of involucre, length of spines, and overall height. Through most of the range of var. pumila, var. ozarkensis is absent, and within the latter's range, var. pumila is less common.
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: Monoecious, the staminate and pistillate flowers usually in separate clusters but sometimes a few pistillate flowers at the base of an otherwise staminate cluster. The genus is largely self-sterile (Fryxell 1957, Schopmeyer 1974). Pollination is by wind in this genus. Nuts are eaten by various mammals and birds.
Ecology Comments: Killed back to the roots by chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) but resprouts, often forming clumps; intermediate in shade tolerance; resistant to heat and drought; sensitive to soil compaction; intolerant of flooding (Hightshoe 1988). Resprouts after fire and often forms extensive clones on frequently burned sites (Godfrey 1988). Apparently not all C. pumila is clonal: Radford et al. (1968) distinguished "C. alnifolia var. alnifolia" [from the southern part of the range, now included in C. pumila var. pumila] by its clonality, lacking in typical C. pumila.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Typically a species of dry open woods and edges, in sandy or rocky, acid soil. (Elias 1980, Gleason & Cronquist 1991, Hightshoe 1988, Hough 1983, Radford et al. 1968) "Dry rocky slopes, dry woods, steep rocky land, rocky stream banks, sandy ridges, borders of swamps, open woods" (Hightshoe 1988). In northern Florida and adjacent regions: "longleaf pine-scrub oak sand ridges and hills that are burned frequently; similarly in open stands of planted pine on ridges and hills; less frequent in sand pine-oak scrub; in railroad rights-of-way, fence and hedge rows, old fields; local and scattered in xeric to mesic mixed woodlands" (Godfrey 1988). Soils: well to excessively drained, average to droughty in moisture, moderately to slightly acid (pH 5.1-6.5), coarse (sandy plains, sandy and gravelly loams) to fine (silty clays, sandy clays; dislikes heavy clays) (Hightshoe 1988).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: FIBER, Building materials/timber
Economic Comments: "The wood is hard, strong, and easy to split, resulting in its use in fences", although the plant is usually too small for timber. (Elias 1980)
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M.E. Stover, TNC-HO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Elias, T. S. 1980. The Complete Trees of North America Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, New York. 948 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Fryxell, P.A. 1957. Mode of reproduction of higher plants. Botanical Review 23(3): 135-233.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 734 pp.

  • Hightshoe, G.L. 1988. Native trees, shrubs, and vines for urban and rural America. A planting design manual for environmental designers. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York. 819 pp.

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Schopmeyer, C.S. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. U.S.D.A., U.S. Forest Serivice, Washington, D.C., 883 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

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