Carya pallida - (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn.
Sand Hickory
Other Common Names: sand hickory
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. (TSN 19244)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153561
Element Code: PDJUG010B0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Walnut Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Juglandales Juglandaceae Carya
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carya pallida
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Feb1984
Global Status Last Changed: 29Feb1984
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Fairly widespread in the United States; frequent, except toward edges of its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (S1), Delaware (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S2), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S2), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (S2S3), New Jersey (S4), North Carolina (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Virginia (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southern New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, southern Illinois, southeastern Missouri, south to northern Florida, west to Louisiana.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southern New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, southern Illinois, southeastern Missouri, south to northern Florida, west to Louisiana.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, SC, TN, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IL Alexander (17003), Hardin (17069)*, Union (17181)
IN Daviess (18027), Knox (18083)*
LA St. Helena (22091), Tangipahoa (22105), Washington (22117)
MO Scott (29201), Stoddard (29207)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+, Bogue Chitto (03180005)+
05 Lower Wabash (05120113)+*, Lower White (05120202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+*
07 Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Cache (07140108)+*
08 New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Amite (08070202)+, Tickfaw (08070203)+*, Tangipahoa (08070205)+, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small to medium-sized tree with usually 7-parted compound leaves; rough gray bark; and round to egg-shaped nuts 1/2 - 1 and 1/2 inches long, with a rather thin husk that splits 4 ways.
Technical Description: Generally a small to medium-sized tree, sometimes (rarely?) to 35 m tall and to 1 m dbh. Bark of trunk pale to dark gray, roughish with interlacing ridges and furrows forming more or less a diamondlike pattern. Buds with imbricated scales, their surfaces more or less clothed with amberish, resinous, disclike scaliness. Young, developing shoots brown, rusty-scaly and more or less pubescent with some longish, shaggy haris. Woody twigs reddish or purplish, eventually gray to nearly black; leaf scars shield-shaped, obcordate, or 3-lobed. Leaflets 3,5,7, or 9, commonly 7, lanceolate, elliptic, ovate, oblong-lanceolate, or obovate, some sometimes moderately inequilateral and falcate, the uppermost pair of laterals often as large as or a little larger than the terminal one (the latter often shortly stalked); at maturity overall leaf length, including petioles, 10-25 (30) cm; bases of lateral leaflets mostly rounded, or those of the uppermost pair and the terminal one moderately to strongly cuneate; upper surfaces green and glabrous (brown and with minute, pale scales when very young), lower surfaces more or less olive-green to brownish, permanently with small, disclike, pale, whitish, or reddish scales between the veins, the principal veins (and petioles and leaf axis as well) bearing hairs in tufts; margins finely serrate upwardly from near their bases, teeth blunt-tipped. Staminate catkins slender, about 4 mm across, bracts subulate and quickly deciduous, calyces and anthers pubescent. Fruit usually somewhat obovoid, 1.5-4 cm long, the husk relatively thin, usually 4-valvate, one valve usually much wider than the other three, valves splitting to the vase; shell of the nut thin, kernel small, sweet. (Godfrey 1988)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Bud scales more than 6, imbricated; husk of the fruit not ridged or keeled along the sutures; margins of leaflets without tufts of hairs on or between the teeth; pubescence of leaf axes and undersurfaces fascicled or tufted; buds and undersurfaces of leaves finely scaly; twigs slender. (Godfrey 1988)
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived
Reproduction Comments: Staminate flowers in catkins at tip of previous season's growth or base of new growth; pistillate flowers in few-flowered spikes terminal on developing shoots (Godfrey 1988). Pollination is by wind. The genus is primarily outcrossing; self-pollination does occur but produces fewer and lower quality fruits (Elias 1980). Nuts are eaten by various animals including squirrels, other rodents, and larger birds (Elias 1980) and also disperse by gravity.
Ecology Comments: Other hickory species sprout vigorously from the stumps after cutting or fire (Burns & Honkala 1990). Other hickory species vary from intolerant (older trees) to very tolerant (saplings of some species) of shade (Fowells 1965, Burns & Honkala 1990).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Woods, usually dry and sandy or rocky; in n. Florida, "upper slopes of ravines & outer rims of steepheads" and "longleaf pine-scrub oak woodlands", in New Jersey, "mixed hardwood forests". (Elias 1980, Fernald 1950, Gleason & Cronquist 1991, Godfrey 1988, Hough 1983)
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M.E. Stover, TNC-HO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, eds. 1990. Silvics of North America, vol. 2: Hardwoods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 654, Washington, DC. 877pp.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Elias, T. S. 1980. The Complete Trees of North America Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, New York. 948 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fowells, H.A. 1965. Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. Division of Timber Management Research, Forest Service, USDA, Washington, D.C. 762 pages.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 734 pp.

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. and D.K. Evans. 1974. Illinois field and herbarium studies. Rhodora 76:460-470.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

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