Carpiodes velifer - (Rafinesque, 1820)
Highfin Carpsucker
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Carpiodes velifer (Rafinesque, 1820) (TSN 163920)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106190
Element Code: AFCJC01030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Carpiodes
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carpiodes velifer
Taxonomic Comments: "Taxonomic status of Gulf and Atlantic slope populations not clear" (Lee et al. 1980). See Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25Oct2011
Global Status Last Changed: 18Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4), Arkansas (S3), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S2S3), Illinois (S2S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (S2), Nebraska (SX), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (S2S3), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes Lake Michigan drainage and Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to Minnesota and south to Louisiana; Atlantic Slope drainages from Cape Fear River, North Carolina, to Altamaha River, Georgia; Gulf Slope drainages from Apalachicola River, Georgia and Florida, to Pearl River, Louisiana and Mississippi (Page and Burr 2011). Sporadic distribution in eastern Great Plains region.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped well over 100 collection sites in Alabama alone.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but apparently quite large. This species is generally common, though rare on the Atlantic Slope (Page and Burr 2011). It is abundant in the main channel of the Cahaba River below the Fall Line in Alabama (Boschung and Mayden 2004).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Declines have occurred in areas where intensive agriculture has resulted in high stream turbidity (Smith 1979).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining. This species may be declining in numbers in Alabama in pools and reservoirs of large rivers, except free-flowing rivers such as the Cahaba River (see Boschung and Mayden 2004).

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Distribution and abundance have declined in the eastern Great Plains region (Cross and Collins 1995) and in areas with intensive agriculture (Smith 1979).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes Lake Michigan drainage and Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to Minnesota and south to Louisiana; Atlantic Slope drainages from Cape Fear River, North Carolina, to Altamaha River, Georgia; Gulf Slope drainages from Apalachicola River, Georgia and Florida, to Pearl River, Louisiana and Mississippi (Page and Burr 2011). Sporadic distribution in eastern Great Plains region.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MN, MO, MS, NEextirpated, OH, OK, PA, TN, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Douglas (20045)*, Labette (20099), Linn (20107)*, Miami (20121)*, Montgomery (20125)*, Neosho (20133)*, Osage (20139)*, Shawnee (20177)*, Wyandotte (20209)
MO Barry (29009)*, Bates (29013)*, Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021), Callaway (29027), Camden (29029)*, Carroll (29033), Clay (29047)*, Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Crawford (29055), Dallas (29059)*, Dunklin (29069)*, Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Gentry (29075)*, Howard (29089), Jefferson (29099)*, Lewis (29111), Lincoln (29113), Maries (29125), Marion (29127), Miller (29131), Moniteau (29135), Montgomery (29139), Morgan (29141)*, Osage (29151), Pemiscot (29155)*, Phelps (29161)*, Pike (29163)*, Pulaski (29169), Ralls (29173)*, Ray (29177), Ripley (29181)*, Saline (29195), Shelby (29205)*, St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), Stoddard (29207), Stone (29209)*, Taney (29213)*, Vernon (29217)*, Warren (29219), Wayne (29223)*
NE Buffalo (31019)*, Dodge (31053)*, Douglas (31055)*, Saline (31151)*, Saunders (31155)*, Washington (31177)*
TN Cocke (47029), Davidson (47037), Greene (47059), Hamblen (47063)*, Hamilton (47065), Hancock (47067), Hardin (47071), Hawkins (47073)*, Humphreys (47085), Knox (47093), Lincoln (47103), Marion (47115), Meigs (47121)*, Pickett (47137)*, Polk (47139), Sevier (47155), Unicoi (47171)*, Washington (47179)
WV Cabell (54011), Hancock (54029), Marshall (54051), Ohio (54069), Pleasants (54073), Wood (54107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Middle Savannah (03060106), Lower Savannah (03060109), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Lower Coosa (03150107), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Lake Superior (04020300), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)*
05 Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)*, Lower Allegheny (05010009)*, Lower Monongahela (05020005)*, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204)*, Muskingum (05040004), Licking (05040006)*, Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001)*, Lower Scioto (05060002), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Big Sandy (05070204), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003)*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104)*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Lower Green (05110005), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Obey (05130105)+*, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Holston (06010104)+*, Upper French Broad (06010105)+*, Pigeon (06010106)+, Lower French Broad (06010107)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Lower Clinch (06010207)+, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Sequatchie (06020004)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003)+, Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001)+, Lower Duck (06040003)+
07 Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001)*, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Pecatonica (07090003), Lower Rock (07090005), Green (07090007), Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+*, Salt (07110007)+, Cuivre (07110008)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104)+*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)*, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), Upper St. Francis (08020202)+*, Lower St. Francis (08020203)*, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Yalobusha (08030205), Big Sunflower (08030207)*, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)*, Lower Big Black (08060202)*, Homochitto (08060205), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)*, Amite (08070202)
10 Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Lower Big Sioux (10170203)*, Lower Platte (10200202)+*, South Loup (10210004)+*, Mud (10210005)*, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+*, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)*, Nishnabotna (10240004)*, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+*, Upper Grand (10280101)+*, Upper Chariton (10280201)*, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+*, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+*, Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+, Pomme De Terre (10290107), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110)+, Lower Osage (10290111)+, Big Piney (10290202)+*, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, James (11010002)+*, Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+, Middle White (11010004), North Fork White (11010006), Current (11010008)+, Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Upper White-Village (11010013), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104)+, Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205)+, Spring (11070207), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Sexually mature in 3rd year (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate between spawning and nonspawning habitats (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes pools and backwaters of creeks and small to large rivers (Page and Burr 2011); rivers, oxbows, sloughs, and ponds over sand or gravel bottom; generally in rivers where current is moderate to swift or in quiet water adjacent to river channels. In some areas this carpsucker appears to prefer clearer waters (Cross and Collins 1995, Miller and Robison 2004). Large numbers may migrate to shallow areas and to overflow areas of streams to spawn; may spawn over riffles.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats algae, ooze, and insects from bottom (Becker 1983).
Length: 31 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are 20-40 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Oct2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Oct2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Lee, David, Carter R. Gilbert, Charles H. Hocult, Robert E. Jenkins, Don E. McAllister, and Jay R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. N. Carolina Biol. Survey Publ. 1980-12. 867 pp.

  • Miller, R. J., and H. W. Robison. 2004. Fishes of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 450 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Vanicek, C. D. 1961. Life history of the quillback and highfin carpsuckers in the Des Moines River. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 68: 238-246.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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