Carpiodes carpio - (Rafinesque, 1820)
River Carpsucker
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque, 1820) (TSN 163919)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104464
Element Code: AFCJC01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Carpiodes
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carpiodes carpio
Taxonomic Comments: See Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25Oct2011
Global Status Last Changed: 18Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in central North America; many occurrences; large population size; trend relatively stable; no major threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S4), Colorado (S3), Georgia (SNA), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (S5), New Mexico (S4), North Carolina (S1), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S3S4), South Dakota (S4), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S4), Wyoming (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to Montana, and south to Louisiana; Gulf drainages from Mississippi River to Rio Grande drainage, Texas and New Mexico; and southward in additional drainages in Mexico (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This fish is abundant in many areas (Lee et al. 1980).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to Montana, and south to Louisiana; Gulf drainages from Mississippi River to Rio Grande drainage, Texas and New Mexico; and southward in additional drainages in Mexico (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, GAexotic, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NM, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, WI, WV, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Limestone (01083)
NC Madison (37115), Yancey (37199)
PA Armstrong (42005)
WV Cabell (54011), Hancock (54029), Jackson (54035), Kanawha (54039), Marshall (54051), Mason (54053), Ohio (54069), Pleasants (54073), Tyler (54095), Wood (54107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
05 Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Beaver (05030104)*, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204)*, Muskingum (05040004), Upper Kanawha (05050006)+, Elk (05050007), Coal (05050009), Lower Scioto (05060002), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003)*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109)*, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114)*, Skillet (05120115)*, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103)*, Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Lower St. Croix (07030005)*, Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Green (07090007), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Fox (07120007)*, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Macoupin (07130012)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108)*, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Yazoo (08030208), Deer-Steele (08030209), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203)*, Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Sun (10030104), Marias (10030203), Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Lower Milk (10050012), Beaver (10050014), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Redwater (10060002), Poplar (10060003), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Big Muddy (10060006), Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007), Pryor (10070008), Big Horn Lake (10080010), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Lower Tongue (10090102), Clear (10090206), Middle Powder (10090207), Little Powder (10090208), Lower Powder (10090209), Mizpah (10090210), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Lake Sakakawea (10110101), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Middle Little Missouri (10110203), Beaver (10110204), Lower Little Missouri (10110205), Lance (10120104), Angostura Reservoir (10120106), Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111), Upper Belle Fourche (10120201), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Knife (10130201), Upper Heart (10130202), Lower Heart (10130203), Upper Cannonball (10130204), Lower Cannonball (10130206), Grand (10130303), Lower Moreau (10130306), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Upper James (10160003), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower Laramie (10180011), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)*, Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Maple (10230005)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007)*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003)*, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008), West Nodaway (10240009)*, Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), South Fork Republican (10250003), Little Beaver (10250013), Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104)*, Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014)*, Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001), Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Pawnee (11030005), Buckner (11030006), Upper Walnut Creek (11030007), Lower Walnut Creek (11030008), Rattlesnake (11030009), Gar-Peace (11030010), Cow (11030011), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Upper Cimarron (11040002), Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006), Crooked (11040007), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Upper Canadian (11080003), Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006), Revuelto (11080008), Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Upper Beaver (11100101), Middle Beaver (11100102), Coldwater (11100103), Palo Duro (11100104), Lower Beaver (11100201), Lower Wolf (11100203), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Cadron (11110205), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Middle North Fork Red (11120302), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Elm Fork Red (11120304), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), Pease (11130105), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), Northern Beaver (11130208), Lake Texoma (11130210), Washita headwaters (11130301), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Village (12020006), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Sabine Lake (12040201), Salt Fork Brazos (12050007), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Lower Brazos (12070104), Leon (12070201), San Gabriel (12070205), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), Lavaca (12100101), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Lower Nueces (12110111)
13 Upper Rio Grande (13020101), Rio Chama (13020102), Rio Grande-Santa Fe (13020201), Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203), Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211), Caballo (13030101), El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102), Cibolo-Red Light (13040201), Black Hills-Fresno (13040203), Big Bend (13040205), Reagan-Sanderson (13040208), Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Pecos headwaters (13060001), Upper Pecos (13060003), Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007), Rio Hondo (13060008), Rio Felix (13060009), Upper Pecos-Black (13060011), Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001), Delaware (13070002), Lower Pecos (13070008), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns May to June or early July in north, early April to early August in New Mexico. Eggs hatch in about 1-2 weeks. Males usually sexually mature at age III, females at age III-IV, sometimes at age II in both sexes (Becker 1983).
Ecology Comments: Schooling species.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This fish is abundant in quiet, silt-bottomed pools and backwaters of rivers and larger creeks having low to moderate gradient (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). It frequently occurs in impoundments. In Oklahoma, it prefers relatively shallow water with little organic matter and large biomass of tubificids (see Sublette et al. 1990). Eggs are scattered over the bottom.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Mostly a bottom feeder, browses on periphyton associated with submerged rocks and debris, ingests various small planktonic plants and animals. (Becker 1983).
Length: 38 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are 20-40 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Oct2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Oct2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Behmer, D.J. 1965. Spawning periodicity of the river carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 72:253-262.

  • Jester, D. B. 1972. Life history, ecology, and management of the river carpsucker, Carpiodes caprio (Rafinesque), with reference to Elephant Butte Lake. New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station. Research Report No. 243. 120 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

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