Carex mitchelliana - M.A. Curtis
Mitchell's Sedge
Other Common Names: Mitchell's sedge
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Carex mitchelliana M.A. Curtis (TSN 39387)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157667
Element Code: PMCYP038R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Carex
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carex mitchelliana
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Mar2006
Global Status Last Changed: 01Mar2006
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Wide ranging in wet woodlands and apparently somewhat uncommon but also probably overlooked. Field botanists have had a fair amount of success in locating new populations recently in the Delmarva Peninsula and the Southeast (R. Naczi, pers. comm. to S. Grund, 2006).
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Delaware (S2), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Maryland (S2), Massachusetts (S2), Mississippi (S3S4), New Jersey (S2), New York (S1S2), North Carolina (S2), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), Rhode Island (S1), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S1S2), Virginia (S3S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Plants of the coastal plain and piedmont. Ranging from southeast Massachusetts, west to Pennsylvania and Kentucky, south to the Florida panhandle, northern Alababma and south central Tennessee (Weakley 1996).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Plants of the coastal plain and piedmont. Ranging from southeast Massachusetts, west to Pennsylvania and Kentucky, south to the Florida panhandle, northern Alababma and south central Tennessee (Weakley 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, DE, FL, GA, MA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
DE Kent (10001), New Castle (10003), Sussex (10005)
MA Barnstable (25001), Bristol (25005)*, Dukes (25007), Nantucket (25019)*
MD Dorchester (24019), Kent (24029), Somerset (24039), Wicomico (24045), Worcester (24047)
MS Alcorn (28003), Lauderdale (28075), Monroe (28095), Tishomingo (28141), Winston (28159)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Burlington (34005), Camden (34007), Cape May (34009), Cumberland (34011)*, Gloucester (34015)*, Ocean (34029)
NY Nassau (36059), Suffolk (36103)
OH Ashtabula (39007)
PA Crawford (42039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Cape Cod (01090002)+
02 Northern Long Island (02030201)+, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+*, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Choptank (02060005)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
03 Buttahatchee (03160103)+, Noxubee (03160108)+, Sucarnoochee (03160202)+, Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)+
04 Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+
05 Shenango (05030102)+
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+
08 Upper Hatchie (08010207)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A slender, triangular stemmed sedge.
General Description: Mitchell's sedge is a tufted, grass-like perennial. It has strap-like leaves that are 3-8 mm wide. Stems 40-140 cm tall arise from the tuft of leaves at the base of the plants. Leaves occur along these stems and a narrowly cylindrical cluster of tiny male flowers occurs at the apex of the stems. Secondary branches occur towards the apex of the stems and are terminated by additional flower/fruit clusters (spikes) which droop. These spikes are predominately composed of female flowers which mature into fruits (perigynia) 2.5-3.9 mm long (Standley et al. 2002).
Technical Description: Rootstock: stout, elongate, not producing stolons. Culm: 5-9 dm tall, slender, much exceeding the leaves, triangular, smooth or nearly so, 9 phyllopodic. Leaves: with well developed blades, 1-2 dm long and 2.5-5 (-8) mm wide, flat with revolute margins, light green, firm, the ligule longer than wide, sheaths hispidulous. Terminal spike: staminate, slender peduncled, narrowly linear, 2.5-4.0 cm long and 2.5-3 mm wide, the scales obtuse, ovate, or retuse, rounded to mucronate or awned. Pistillate spikes: usually 3 and seperate, drooping on slender peduncles, densely flowered above, 3-8 cm long and 6-8 mm wide, often with distal staminate flowers. Flowers: monosporangiate. Pistillate scales: long awned, truncate or retuse, exceeding the perigynia. Perigynia: 50-125, 2.5-3.5 mm long and about 1.75 mm wide (distinctly longer than the achene), ascending in serveral rows, oblong-ovate, flattened biconvex, membranaceous; the beak 0.1-0.2 mm long, entire. Achenes: symetrical, lenticular, about 1.75 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, loosely enveloped in the lower portion of the perigynia, jointed with the slender, straight style. Stigmas: 2, slender, short.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Leaf sheaths hispidulous. Spikes 3 or more; the upper erect, staminate; the lower spreading or drooping, pistillate. Pistillate scales long awned, exceeding the perigynia, the lower truncate or retuse. Perigynia flattened, sharply and finely nerved, tapering to a minute beak. Achene lenticular, not constricted.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: n=33.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Swamp forests, thickets, wet woods, swales, and meadows chiefly of the coastal plain and piedmont.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Mar2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Maybury
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Breuderle, L.P. and D.E. Fairbrothers. 1986. Allozyme variation in populations of the Carex crinita complex (Cyperaceae). System. Bot. 11(4):583-594.

  • Breuderle, L.P., D.E. Fairbrothers and S.L. Hanks. 1989. A systematic circumscription of Carex mitchelliana (Cyperaceae) with reference to taxonomic status. Am. J. of Bot. 76(1):124-132.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. B13BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Bruederle, L.P., D.E. Fairbrothers, and S.L. Hanks. 1989. A systematic circumscription of Carex mitchelliana (Cyperaceae) with reference to taxonomic status. Amer. J. Bot. 76: 124-132.

  • Bryson, Charles T. 2002. Preliminary abundance and range estimates for Cyperaceae species of Mississippi. Handwritten notes provided to Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 100 pp.

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  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

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  • Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern North America and Adjacent Canada. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.

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  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Canada.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K. Wooten, J.W. 1970. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. USA. B70GOD01PAUS

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  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

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  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Radford, A.E., Ahles, H.E., and Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The Univ. of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. B68RAD01PAUS.

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  • Zaremba, Robert E. 1991. Corrections to phenology list of April 9, 1991.

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