Carex klamathensis - B.L. Wilson & L.P. Janeway
Synonym(s): Carex sp. 10
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.732535
Element Code: PMCYP03L70
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Carex
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, B. L., R. E. Brainerd, L. P. Janeway, K. Kuykendall, D. Lytjen, B. Newhouse, N. Otting, S. Meyers, and P. F. Zika. 2007. Description of Carex klamathensis (Cyperaceae), a rare sedge of the Klamath region of Oregon and California, U.S.A. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1(1): 69-77.
Concept Reference Code: A07WIL01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carex klamathensis
Taxonomic Comments: Newly described in 2007 (Wilson et al. 2007), plants of this species had formerly been identified as belonging to Carex livida. Wilson et al. (2007) discuss traits that differentiate this species from C. livida, from C. meadii and C. tetanica, and from C. hassei. These authors also note that California populations are somewhat genetically distinct from Oregon populations.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Oct2015
Global Status Last Changed: 30Mar2005
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Known from 12-15 populations in Josephine County, southwest Oregon and three occurrences in northern California (Colusa, Lake, and Tehama counties). Extensive searches have failed to locate additional populations. California populations are small, as are some in Oregon. However, there are also several large populations in Oregon. Threats to the species' serpentine fen habitat include road construction, recreational use (particularly off-road vehicles), and mining.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2), Oregon (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Several populations in Josephine County, southwest Oregon, and also found at isolated sites in Colusa, Lake, and Tehama counties, California.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: 12-15 populations are known in Oregon and 3 occurrences are known in California. Extensive searches of likely habitat within the known range have failed to locate additional populations.

Population Size Comments: California populations are "all small and isolated " (Wilson et al. 2007). Some Oregon populations have thousands of plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat is threatened by road building, recreational use of serpentine wetlands (particularly ORV use), and mining. These activities can directly harm plants or degrade habitat by disrupting hydrology. Vulnerable to fire suppression activities involving bulldozers.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: More than half of one of the California populations was destroyed by bulldozing in association with mining (Wilson et al. 2007).

Long-term Trend: Increase of >25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Several populations in Josephine County, southwest Oregon, and also found at isolated sites in Colusa, Lake, and Tehama counties, California.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, OR

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Colusa (06011), Lake (06033), Tehama (06103)
OR Josephine (41033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Middle Rogue (17100308)+, Lower Rogue (17100310)+*, Illinois (17100311)+
18 Upper Stony (18020115)+, Upper Cache (18020116)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial rhizomatous sedge with glaucous foliage and pale, more or less papillose, obovate perigynia with bent beaks (Wilson et al. 2007).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Adapted from Wilson et al. (2007): Indistinct perigynium beaks and pale shoot bases differentiate this species from C. californica, which has tubular perigynium beaks and red-brown shoot bases, rhizomes, and scales. It is easily confused with other rhizomatous sedges that have glaucous foliage, pale brown or whitish (not red-brown) plant bases, and pale, more or less papillose perigynia. Traits distinguishing this species from C. livida, C. hassei, C. meadii, and C. tetanica are summarized in Wilson et al. (2007), pg. 75. Has wider leaves, more staminate flowers, and shorter, obovate (not fusiform) perigynia compared to C. livida; also, C. livida occurs on non-serpentine substrates. Female flowers of C. klamathensis tend to have three stigmas while those of C. hassei tend to have two stigmas, although some C. hassei plants have a mixture of two- and three-stigma flowers on the same plant, and some C. klamathensis flowers may have only two stigmas due to flower abortion. However, two-stigma flowers on C. klamathensis typically occur in frequencies of < 10-15%, while those on C. hassei typically occur in frequencies > 33-40%. C. klamathensis plants are also taller and more robust than those of C. hassei and have longer and wider terminal spikes, longer inflorescence nodes, wider leaves, and slightly longer perigynia. These two species also differ in color and stiffness of foliage. Differs from the Midwestern C. meadii and C. tetanica in range, and also by its wider leaves and different achene surface. In C. klamathensis, the achene surface is reticulate with low ridges and a flat space between the ridges, or with a minute central papilla in that flat space, whereas in C. meadii and C. tetanica, the achene surface is papillate with a large papilla occupying virtually all of the surface between the low ridges. C. klamathensis also has smaller perigynia, narrower achenes, and a wetter habitat than C. meadii, and more staminate flowers and therefore wider staminate spikes than C. tetanica.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Fens and springs on ultramafic (serpentine) soils, co-occurring with herbaceous plants, often including Darlingtonia californica. Oregon sites (400-950 m) are surrounded by woodland, such as Pinus jeffreyi savannah. California sites (1000-1140 m) are surrounded by chaparral with cypresses, grey pine, and typical chaparral shrubs.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Oct2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gravuer, K. (2008), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • NatureServe. Unpublished. Concept reference for taxa which have not yet been described; to be used as a placeholder until a citation is available which describes the circumscription of the taxon.

  • Wilson, B. L., R. E. Brainerd, L. P. Janeway, K. Kuykendall, D. Lytjen, B. Newhouse, N. Otting, S. Meyers, and P. F. Zika. 2007. Description of Carex klamathensis (Cyperaceae), a rare sedge of the Klamath region of Oregon and California, U.S.A. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1(1): 69-77.

  • Wilson, B.L., R.E. Brainerd, L.P. Janeway, K. Kuykendall, D. Lytjen, B. Newhouse, N. Otting, S. Meyers & P.F. Zika. 2007. Description of Carex klamathensis (Cyperaceae), a rare sedge of the Klamath region of Oregon and California. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1: 69-77.

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