Carex baltzellii - Chapman ex Dewey
Baltzell's Sedge
Other Common Names: Baltzell's sedge
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Carex baltzellii Chapman ex Dewey (TSN 39516)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.151968
Element Code: PMCYP031H0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
Image 10401

© Alfred R. Schotz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Carex
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carex baltzellii
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct sp. in large genus. May be confused in field with C. picta, but latter produces unisexual plants.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13Oct1998
Global Status Last Changed: 07Jun1999
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known from rare occurrences in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, and from the western Florida Panhandle, where it is often locally abundant, but is not a common plant. Range-wide, the species' habitat is rapidly decreasing in extent and quality due to development and logging activities. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory's database contains 120 occurrence records. Most of the occurrences are located on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S3), Georgia (S1), Mississippi (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Narrow endemic found in NW Florida (Gadsden, Liberty, and In Florida, counties, primarily found in Apalachicola Bluffs), SE Alabama, and SW Georgia. Also found in Mississippi.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Florida, primarily found in Apalachicola Bluffs. 120 EO's mapped as of 1998, however, Eglin EOs are likely mapped too finely.

Population Size Comments: Locally abundant, occurring in large clumps or many clumps.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Beech-magnolia slope forests are being destroyed by logging and development.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Narrow endemic found in NW Florida (Gadsden, Liberty, and In Florida, counties, primarily found in Apalachicola Bluffs), SE Alabama, and SW Georgia. Also found in Mississippi.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, MS

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Dale (01045), Geneva (01061), Pike (01109)*
FL Bay (12005), Calhoun (12013), Escambia (12033)*, Gadsden (12039), Liberty (12077), Okaloosa (12091), Santa Rosa (12113), Walton (12131), Washington (12133)
GA Clay (13061), Early (13099)
MS Marion (28091)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+*, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Chipola (03130012)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+, Upper Conecuh (03140301)+*, Escambia (03140305)+*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial sedge, somewhat spreading, from a fibrous rhizome. Leaves are numerous, mostly 2-3.5 dm long. Flowering stems are up to 3 dm tall. The terminal flower spike is the longest-stalked and is composed exclusively of male flowers; lateral spikes are entirely female, or female below and male at tips. Blooms late March to April.
Technical Description: "Perennial, forming tufts from spreading-ascending, scaly, fibrous rhizomes. Leaves and shoots numerous per tuft, linear, the longest to 6 dm long, 0.5-1.0 cm broad, pale green, somewhat spreading, scabrous along the raised veins, firm, spreading, and overwintering, gradually tapering at the apex, the bases pale or straw-colored. Fertile shoots up to 30 cm tall, thus exceeded by foliage leaves and forming in late winter or early spring, shorter-leaved with the lower and outer-most scale-like and pale or pale brown. Inflorescence spikes 3-5, on erect or ascending stalks, the lower ones often obscured in bracteal and foliage leaves, linear-cylindrical, 3-5 cm long, the terminal spike longest-stalked and exclusively of male florets, bracts closely overlapped, obovate, with broadly rounded or almost truncate apices, rich reddish-brown with a strong, pale midnerve which projects as strong mucro. Lateral spikes entirely female or female below, male at the tips. Female florets with strongly overlapping bracts, and with same shape and color as the male. The fruiting female perigynia (covering of the fruit) narrowly obovoid, about 4 mm long, tight, narrowing gradually to the base, apically to an erect, oblique and toothless beak; the body obscurely trigonous, finely hairy, with many fine but strongly raised ribs. Fruit a dark brown achene, trigonous, with a short stalk" (Kral, 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: "Taxonomically this species is closest to a more northerly sedge, Carex pedunculata, which has narrower but shorter leaves, shorter spikes with fewer florets, and purplish or brownish culm bases. Superficially, and in range it is closest to Carex picta in general appearance, in leaf, and in shape and color of spikes. However, this latter species is one of the few Carex which produces unisexual plants; its bases are usually reddish-tinted, its spike bracts, while strongly red-brown tinted, lack the strong mucro produced by C. baltzellii" (Kral, 1983).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Flowers unisexual, often grouped into separate male and female spikes (Proctor and Yeo, 1973).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Moist, well-drained, shady, steep ravines of beech-magnolia/longleaf pine-turkey oak forests.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13Oct1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D., Rev. D.L. White; rev. L.G. Chafin (1998)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 22May1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bryson, C.T., S.W. Rosso, R.F.C. Naczi. 1991. Carex baltzellii (Cyperaceae) new to Mississippi with notes on Carex picta and Carex impressinerva in Mississippi. Sida 14(3):493-499.

  • Bryson, C.T., S.W. Rosso, and R.C. Naczi. 1991. Carex baltzellii (Cyperaceae) new to Mississippi with notes on Carex picta and Carex impressinervia in Mississippi. Sida 14(3): 493-499.

  • Bryson, Charles T. 2002. Preliminary abundance and range estimates for Cyperaceae species of Mississippi. Handwritten notes provided to Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 100 pp.

  • CHAFIN, L.G. AND A.R. SCHOTZ. 1995. RARE PLANT SURVEY OF EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE, 1992-1994. FLORIDA NATURAL AREAS INVENTORY, TALLAHASSEE, FL.

  • CLEWELL, ANDRE F. 1985. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL. 605 PP.

  • Chafin, L.G. and A.R. Schotz. 1995. Rare plant survey of Eglin Air Force Base, 1992-1994. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, FL.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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