Cardellina pusilla - (Wilson, 1811)
Wilson's Warbler
Synonym(s): Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson, 1811)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Wilsonia pusilla (A. Wilson, 1811) (TSN 178973)
French Common Names: paruline à calotte noire
Spanish Common Names: Chipe Corona Negra
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100788
Element Code: ABPBX16020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
Image 7747

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Parulidae Cardellina
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Wilsonia pusilla
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly placed in the genus Wilsonia. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (Lovette et al. 2010) indicate that two species formerly placed in the genus Wilsonia (canadensis and pusilla)and both species formerly placed in the genus Ergaticus (rubra and versicolor) form a clade with Cardellina rubrifrons. The generic name Cardellina has priority for this clade (AOU 2011).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large breeding range in North America; large winter range mostly in Mexico and Central America; large population size; many occurrences; overall population apparently has declined over the past several decades, probably as a result of anthropogenic habitat changes.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNRM), Alaska (S5B), Arizona (S5M), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNRB), Colorado (S4B), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S2S3N), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNRN), Idaho (S4B), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S4N), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (S3S4B), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S2B,S5M), New Hampshire (S3B), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (S2B,S5N), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S5N), Oregon (S5B), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S3N), Texas (S4), Utah (S3S4B), Vermont (S1B), Virginia (SNA), Washington (S5B), West Virginia (SNA), Wyoming (S5B,S5N)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S5B,S5M), Manitoba (S4S5B), New Brunswick (S4B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (S5B,S5M), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S3B), Nunavut (SUB), Ontario (S4B), Quebec (S5B), Saskatchewan (S5B), Yukon Territory (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Breeding range extends from most of Alaska eastward across central Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, and south to southern Alaska, southern California, Nevada, Utah, northern New Mexico, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, northern Great Lakes region, northeastern New York, northern Vermont, central Maine, and Nova Scotia (AOU 1998).

Primary winter range extends from coastal California (rare), southern Baja California, southern Sonora, southern Texas, southern Louisiana, southern Mississippi (rare), southern Alabama (rare), and Florida south through Middle America (rarely in the Yucatan Peninsula) to Panama (AOU 1998).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 1,000,000. Rich et al. (2004) estimated population size at 36,000,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Many occurrences appear to have at least good estimated viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Population trends appear to be driven primarily by habitat changes. Ammon and Gilbert (1999) stated that population increases in northern forested regions in the 1960s and1970s may have been related to increased availability of midsuccessional, deciduous scrub habitats following logging, whereas regional decreases, particularly in the west, most likely reflect extensive destruction of riparian habitats. No other major threats have been identified, but the role of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbird needs further study. Habitat changes in the winter range are not thought to be a significant concern at the present time (Ammon and Gilbert 1999).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate an ongoing decline over the past 10 years or three generations.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 200 years is unknown, but this species appears to have undergone a decline over the past several decades. Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for 1966-2007 indicate a significant survey-wide decline averaging 2.3% per year; this amounts to a 61% decline over this time period. BBS abundance (average number of individuals per route) declined from 1.6-2.1 in the 1960s and early 1970s to 0.9-1.2 in 2000-2007 (decline of around one individual per route), so the absolute magnitude of the decline is relatively modest.

BBS data for 1966-2003 indicate that areas of population decline are extensive in British Columbia, U.S. Pacific coast states,Southern Rockies, south-central Canada, and portions of northern New England and adjacent Canada, whereas population increases occurred in interior western North America and portions of the area extending from the northern Great Lakes region to Newfoundland.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Breeding range extends from most of Alaska eastward across central Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, and south to southern Alaska, southern California, Nevada, Utah, northern New Mexico, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, northern Great Lakes region, northeastern New York, northern Vermont, central Maine, and Nova Scotia (AOU 1998).

Primary winter range extends from coastal California (rare), southern Baja California, southern Sonora, southern Texas, southern Louisiana, southern Mississippi (rare), southern Alabama (rare), and Florida south through Middle America (rarely in the Yucatan Peninsula) to Panama (AOU 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Cassia (16031), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Shoshone (16079), Valley (16085)
VT Essex (50009)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Connecticut (01080101)+
16 Curlew Valley (16020309)+
17 Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Clutch size commonly is 3-4 in coastal California, 4-5 in the Sierra Nevada, 5-6 in Alaska. Incubation, by female, lasts 12-15 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 9-10 days in California. Some males are polygynous in the Sierra Nevada (Stewart et al. 1978).
Ecology Comments: In California, territory size in different habitats ranges from about 0.2 to 2.0 ha (Stewart et al. 1978).

Usually this warbler is solitary and territorial in winter, but it may join mixed flocks (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrants arrive in Sierra Nevada nesting areas in late May; on California coast, males begin to arrive in late March (Stewart et al. 1978). Migrants arrive in the southern winter range in mid-September, depart by mid-May (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes semi-open areas in moist woodlands, bogs with scattered trees, willow and alder thickets, and areas with similar vegatation structure. Winter habitats include semi-open or lightly wooded areas, such as the canopy, openings, and edges of forests, second growth, coffee plantations, brushy fields, and yards (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Nests are on the ground at the bases of shrubs (e.g., willows in the Sierra Nevada) or saplings or under cover of ground vegetation; nests may be above ground in thick vegetation in coastal California and Oregon. Individuals often return to the nesting areas used the previous year (Stewart et al. 1978).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet includes insects (wasps, ants, flies, beetles, caterpillars, etc.). Foraging occurs throughout available vegetation. Most food is obtained from leaves by gleaning while perched or flying (Stewart et al. 1978). In winter in Mexico, this warbler forages in the upper third of the canopy where the foliage is fairly dense and leaf size is small; leaves are the most common feeding substrate (Rappole and Warner 1980).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 12 centimeters
Weight: 7 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Mar2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Mar2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ridgely, R. S. 2002. Distribution maps of South American birds. Unpublished.

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