Caragana arborescens - Lam.
Siberian Peashrub
Other English Common Names: Caragana, Common Caragana
Other Common Names: Siberian peashrub
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Caragana arborescens Lam. (TSN 26529)
French Common Names: caragana arborescent
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153131
Element Code: PDFAB0R010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Caragana
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Caragana arborescens
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (07Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Utah (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA), Yukon Territory (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, COexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MTexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, SDexotic, UTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic, YTexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Caragana arborescens is established mainly in the north-central states, where it has been widely planted for wind-breaks, but also in Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, California, Washington State and Alaska. Caragana arborescens is a nitrogen fixer and reproduces vegetatively and by seed. Caragana arborescens has invaded grazed pastures, waste places, grassland, open woods, and deciduous woods. Apparently, it is currently having negative impacts in a small portion of its range and is most abundant in North Dakota. More information is needed especially about its specific ecological impacts, reproductive characteristics, and management difficulty.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 14Jun2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to Siberia and northern China (Isely 1998).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: In Michigan, rarely found established as an escape in open woods or deciduous woods (Voss 1985). In California, naturalized in the extreme southern portion of the state in the Peninsular Ranges (Baldwin et al. 2004). Perhaps most common in North Dakota (Isely 1998).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High/Low significance
Comments: Caragana arborescens is a nitrogen fixer (Dirr 1990). Presumeably, it has some impact on abiotic ecosystem processes.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:High/Low significance
Comments: A shrub or small tree which may have 1/4 inch spines at each node (Dirr 1990).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Low significance
Comments: A shrub or small tree which may have 1/4 inch spines at each node (Dirr 1990).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of impacts on particular native species found in the literature; assumption is that any impacts are not major.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:High/Low significance
Comments: In Wisconsin, it is classified as a potentially invasive species that occurs in grassland (IPAW 2003). In Utah, it occurs between 1370 and 1900 meters in 8 counties (Welsh 1993). In California, naturalized in the extreme southern portion of the state in the Peninsular Ranges (Baldwin et al. 2004). Presumeably, some of these areas may contain elements of conservation significance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Established mainly in the north-central states, but also in Maine, Massachuseets, Maryland, California, Washington State and Alaska (Kartesz 1999). Its distribution is patchy. See the subnational distribution data in these sources: Baldwin et al. 2004, Rice 2004, Rocky Mountain Herbarium 1998, Great Plains Flora Association 1977, Wisconsin State Herbarium 2004, Iverson et al. 1999, and Voss 1996.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: In Wisconsin, it is classified as a potentially invasive species that occurs in grassland (IPAW 2003). In the northern Great Plains, it escapes into grazed pastures and waste places particularly in northwest North Dakota (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). In Michigan, Caragana arborescens is rarely found as an escape in open woods or deciduous woods (Voss 1985). In Utah, it occurs between 1370 and 1900 meters in 8 counties (Welsh 1993). In California, naturalized in the extreme southern portion of the state in the Peninsular Ranges (Baldwin et al. 2004). Caragana arborescens is reported as an invasive plant in the eastern region of the USFS (USFS 2004).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: At most 65% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001). At least 20% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Caragana arborescens is widely planted for wind-breaks (Isely 1998). In the northern Great Plains, it escapes into grazed pastures and waste places particularly in northwest North Dakota (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). In Wisconsin, it occurs in grassland (IPAW 2003). In Michigan, Caragana arborescens is rarely found as an escape in open woods or deciduous woods (Voss 1985). In Utah, it occurs between 1370 and 1900 meters in 8 counties (Welsh 1993). In California, naturalized in the extreme southern portion of the state in the Peninsular Ranges (Baldwin et al. 2004).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Low significance
Comments: In the northern Great Plains, it escapes into grazed pastures and waste places (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). Occurs in disturbed areas; assumption is that disturbed areas are not declining and therefore this species' total range is not declining. Also this species is widely planted as a wind break (Isely 1998).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from USDA (1990) and Kartesz (1999), 30-90% of its potential generalized range in the U.S. is currently occupied.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Fruit is a pod, 1.5 to 2 inches long with 3 to 5 seeds (Dirr 1990).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: In the northern Great Plains, it escapes into grazed pastures and waste places (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). Occurs in disturbed areas; assumption is that disturbed areas are not decreasing and therefore this species' local range is not stable or decreasing. Also this species is widely planted as a wind break (Isely 1998).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: In the northern Great Plains, it escapes into grazed pastures and waste places particularly in northwest North Dakota (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). In Wisconsin, it occurs in grassland (IPAW 2003). In Michigan, Caragana arborescens is rarely found as an escape in open woods or deciduous woods (Voss 1985). In Utah, it occurs between 1370 and 1900 meters in 8 counties (Welsh 1993). In California, naturalized in the extreme southern portion of the state in the Peninsular Ranges (Baldwin et al. 2004).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: Occurs in Canada (Kartesz 1999); therefore it is known as an escape outside the region of interest. In Canada, it occasionally spreads to open woods and clearings (Scoggan 1978). It has already invaded this habitat in the U.S.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Some sucker (Dirr 1990). It is propagated from seed (Dirr 1990). Wild plants may have 1/4 inch spines at each node (Dirr 1990).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Low significance
Comments: Caragana arborescens is reported as an invasive plant in the eastern region of the USFS (USFS 2004). Presumeably, management is necessary.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of control requiring more than 10 years found in the literature; assumption is that control requires less than 10 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Low significance
Comments: Valued for wind-breaks (Bailey 1976). Widely planted for wind-breaks (Isely 1998). At least in some areas, accessibility may be a problem.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bailey, L.H., and E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 1290 pp.

  • Baldwin, B.G., S. Boyd, B.J. Ertter, D.J. Keil, R.W. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti and D.H. Wilken. 2004.
    Jepson Flora Project, Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics. Regents of the University of California, Berkeley. Online. Available: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.html (Accessed 2004).

  • Dirr, M.A. 1990. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes Publishing Company, Champaign, Illinois. 1007 pp.

  • Great Plains Flora Association (R.L. McGregor, coordinator; T.M. Barkley, ed., R.E. Brooks and E.K. Schofield, associate eds.). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1392 pp.

  • Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin (IPAW). 2003. IPAW working list of the invasive plants of Wisconsin: a call for comments and information. Plants Out of Place, Issue 4. Online. Available: http://www.ipaw.org/newsletters/issue4.pdf (accessed 2004).

  • Isely, D. 1998. Native and naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii). Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University; MLBM Press, Provo, Utah. 1007 pp.

  • Iverson, L.R., D. Ketzner and J. Karnes. 1999. Illinois Plant Information Network. Database at http://fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/ilpin.html. Illinois Natural History Survey and USDA Forest Service.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Rice, P.M. 2004. February 19 last update. Invaders Database System. Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula. Online. Available: http://invader.dbs.umt.edu (accessed 2004).

  • Rocky Mountain Herbarium. 1998. Atlas of the Vascular Flora of Wyoming. University of Wyoming. Online. Available: http://www.esb.utexas.edu/tchumley/wyomap/atlas.htm (accessed 2004).

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada: Parts 1-4. National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 1711 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • U.S. Forest Service Eastern Region. 2004, 06 January 2004 - last update. Section 3b: Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/range/weed/index.php?open=Sec3B.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • University of Alaska Museum. 2004. Arctos Database; Data on northern specimen based research. University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Online. Available: http://arctos.database.museum/home.cfm (accessed 2004).

  • Voss, E.G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicotyledons. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1212 pp.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

  • Wisconsin State Herbarium. 2004, January 20, 2004 last update. Wisconsin state herbarium vascular plant species database. Available: http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora/. (Accessed 2004).

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