Capra hircus - Linnaeus, 1758
Goat
Other English Common Names: Domestic Goat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 180715)
French Common Names: chèvre
Spanish Common Names: Chivo, Cabra
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103788
Element Code: AMALE07010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Artiodactyla Bovidae Capra
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Capra hircus
Taxonomic Comments: Domesticated about 8,500 years ago from a presently extant conspecific ancestor. Grubb (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005) included C. aegagrus in C. hircus, whereas Jones et al. (1992) listed them as separate species. Various authors recognize 2-9 species in this genus. See Georgiadis et al. (1991) for a phylogeny of the Bovidae based on allozyme divergence. Gatesy et al. (1992) present a phylogeny of the Bovidae based on mitochondrial RNA sequences; they conclude that the monophyly of the Bovidae is questionable. See Kraus and Miyamoto (1991) for a phylogenetic analysis of pecoran ruminants (Cervidae, Bovidae, Moschidae, Antilocapridae, and Giraffidae) based on mitochondrial DNA data.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNA
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04Apr2016
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (29Nov2011)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNA), Hawaii (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Native to southwestern Asia. Domesticated worldwide. Feral populations in British Isles, Mediterranean islands, Canada, Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, Australia, New Zealand, Bonin, Galapagos, Seychelles, Juan Fermnandez Islands, other oceanic islands, on all main islands in Hawaii (except Niihau and Lanai), California, the southwestern U.S., and Puerto Rico (Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

Short-term Trend Comments: See Tomich (1986) for extensive account of historical and present status in Hawaii (see also Taylor and Katahira 1988 and Kramer 1971). See Johnson (1988) for brief comments on status in Puerto Rico.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Native to southwestern Asia. Domesticated worldwide. Feral populations in British Isles, Mediterranean islands, Canada, Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, Australia, New Zealand, Bonin, Galapagos, Seychelles, Juan Fermnandez Islands, other oceanic islands, on all main islands in Hawaii (except Niihau and Lanai), California, the southwestern U.S., and Puerto Rico (Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, HIexotic, NMexotic, WVexotic

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeds year round in Hawaii (Kramer 1971). Gestation lasts about 5 months. Female may breed at 12 months, may breed twice annually. Litter size 1-2.
Ecology Comments: High capacity for population increase (up to 10-35% per year) (Watts and Conley 1984).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Opportunistic herbivore.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: A popular game animal in some areas, though management as game animal may conflict with efforts to protect and enhance native ecosystems.
Management Summary
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Species Impacts: Regarded as a pest in areas where native vegetation is damaged.
Management Requirements: Intensive efforts succeeded in virtually eliminating feral populations from Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Tomich 1986) and from Santa Cruz Island, California; recovery of native vegetation in Hawaii has been good.
Monitoring Requirements: Radio telemetry was useful in locating last remnant goats in Hawaii Volcanoes N.P. (collared goats joined groups of wild goats) (Taylor and Katahira 1988).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Apr1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: <http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf> (Accessed April 1, 2015)

  • Georgiadis, N. J., P. Kat, H. Oketch, and J. Patton. 1991. Allozyme divergence within the Bovidae. Evolution 44:2135-2149.

  • Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk Project. 2005. Information index for selected alien vertebrates in Hawaii. Internet resource available at http://www.hear.org/alienspeciesinhawaii/InfoIndexVertebrates.htm. Downloaded 31 March 2005.

  • Johnson, T. H. 1988. Biodiversity and conservation in the Caribbean. Profiles of selected islands. ICBP Monograph No. 1.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Kramer, R. J. 1971. Hawaiian land mammals. Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo, Japan. 347 pp.

  • Kraus, F., and M. M. Miyamoto. 1991. Rapid cladogenesis among the pecoran ruminants: evidence from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Systematic Zoology 40:117-130.

  • Lever, C. 1985. Naturalized mammals of the world. Longman Group Limited, England.

  • Taylor, D., and L. Katahira. 1988. Radio telemetry as an aid in eradicating remnant feral goats. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:297-299.

  • Tirira, D. 1999. Mamíferos del Ecuador. Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito.

  • Tomich, P. Q. 1986. Mammals in Hawai'i. A synopsis and notational bibliography. Second edition. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 375 pp.

  • Watts, T., and W. Conley. 1984. Reproductive potential andrates of increase for feral goat populations. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:814-822.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

  • Woodward, S. L., and D. P. Sponenberg. 1992. Feral livestock in America: identification of populations important for the conservation of genetic diversity. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 148.

  • Zeiner, D. C., W. F. Laudenslayer, Jr., K. E. Mayer, and M. White, editors. 1990b. California's wildlife. Volume III. Mammals. State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. 407 pp.

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