Canella winterana - (L.) Gaertn.
Pepper Cinnamon
Other English Common Names: Wild Cinnamon
Other Common Names: wild cinnamon
Synonym(s): Canella winteriana (L.) Gaertn.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Canella winteriana (L.) Gaertn. (TSN 184100)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160852
Element Code: PDCAN01010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Magnoliales Canellaceae Canella
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Canella winteriana
Taxonomic Comments: Epithet was spelled 'winteriana' in earlier versions of the Synthesis of the North American Flora (Kartesz 1994, 1999), but apparently this was in error (M. Nishino pers. comm. 2009); now changed to 'winterana'.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5?
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Oct2002
Global Status Last Changed: 14Oct2002
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Relatively widespread in tropical America (Long and Lakela 1971), but both Lioges and Marotell (1982) for Puerto Rico and Correll & Correll (1982) for Bahamas say it is confined to West Indies and Florida. According to Elias (1980), occurs [in the USA] only in the Cape Sable region of Florida and in the Florida Keys. Little (1979) states that it also occurs from the Bahamas to the West Indies. Little (1964) explains it is found in thickets in the dry coastal and limestone regions of Puerto Rico and also at the northeastern corner of the island. Record (1924) includes Colombia and Venezuela in his range description.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Found in lowland forest in West Indies and Central America north of Panama (also in the Bahamas, south Florida and the West Indies -- Correll and Correll 1982).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Florida populations of this species faired very well following Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Once established, this species seems to occupy a site for a long time. Seedlings and saplings are never abundant in hammocks with reproductives present, but generally are widespread almost uniformly.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Found in lowland forest in West Indies and Central America north of Panama (also in the Bahamas, south Florida and the West Indies -- Correll and Correll 1982).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Monroe (12087)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Everglades (03090202)+*, Florida Bay-Florida Keys (03090203)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An evergreen tropical hardwood tree.
Habitat Comments: In Florida: rockland hammock forests of upper Florida Keys and the mainland north of Florida Bay. In Bahamas: whitelands, scrublands, and thickets. Usually grows in shade of other trees.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: Spice/herb/condiment, MEDICINE/DRUG, FIBER, Building materials/timber, OTHER USES/PRODUCTS
Economic Comments: The bitter acrid inner bark is the wild cinnamon bark of commerce. It is employed as an aromatic stimulant and tonic. In Cuba the wood is sometimes employed in the manufacture of agricultural implements.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Broaddus, Lynn, C. E. Hilsenbeck, and A. F. Johnson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JASTER, T. (TNC-LASP)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • CORRELL, D.S. & H.B. CORRELL. 1982. FLORA OF THE BAHAMA ARCHIPELAGO (INCLUDING THE TURKS & CAICOS ISLANDS). J. CRAMER, GERMANY. 1692 + 50 PAGES

  • Correll, D.S., and H.B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (including the Turks and Caicos Islands). J. Cramer, Vaduz. 1692 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • LONG, R.W. & O. LAKELA. 1971. A FLORA OF TROPICAL FLORIDA. BANYAN BOOKS; ORIGINAL PUBLISHED BY UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI PRESS, MIAMI, FL.

  • Liogier, H.A., and L.F. Martorell. 1982. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: A systematic synopsis. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras. 342 pp.

  • Little, E., Jr. & Wadsworth, F. 1964. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 548 páges.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Long, R.W. and O. Lakela. 1976. A flora of tropical Florida. Banyan Books. Miami, Florida, xvii + 962 pp.

  • Record, S., and C. Mell. 1924. Timbers of Tropical America. New Haven: Yale University Press, U.S.A. 610 págs.

  • TOMLINSON, P.B. 1980, 1986. THE BIOLOGY OF TREES NATIVE TO TROPICAL FLORIDA. HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRINTING OFFICE, ALLSTON, MA. 480 PP. + V.

  • Tomlinson, P. B. 1980. The biology of trees native to tropical Florida. Harvard University Printing Office, Allston, MA. 480 pp.

  • WEINER, A.H. 1979. THE HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS OF THE FLORIDA KEYS: AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY. NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY & FLORIDA KEYS LAND TRUST. TWO COPIES.

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