Campylopus carolinae - Grout
Savanna Campylopus Moss
Other English Common Names: Carolina Campylopus Moss
Other Common Names: Carolina campylopus moss
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Campylopus carolinae Grout (TSN 16779)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.123135
Element Code: NBMUS1K040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Non-Vascular - Mosses
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Bryophyta Bryopsida Dicranales Dicranaceae Campylopus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Anderson, L.E., H.A. Crum, and W.R. Buck. 1990. List of the mosses of North America north of Mexico. The Bryologist 93(4):448-499.
Concept Reference Code: A90AND01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Campylopus carolinae
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13Dec2006
Global Status Last Changed: 13Dec2006
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Campylopus carolinae is known from only a few occurrences in North Carolina and Virginia. At least four of these populations are in protected areas and one is moderately threatened by encroaching development. C. carolinae grows mostly buried in loose white sand with only the awns visible, making it easy to overlook. C. carolinae is fire resistant and would probably be swamped by graminoid and shrubby growth if not exposed to fire. Plants of Georgia and Florida, previously called C. carolinae, are a distinct taxon not yet described (Anderson 1996).
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNR), North Carolina (S1S2), South Carolina (SNR), Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: An Atlantic Coastal Plain endemic, Campylopus carolinae is known from the Fallline Sandhills and in the Coastal Fringe Sandhills, in southeastern Virginia and in North Carolina (Anderson 1996). It may also occur in Georgia and Florida (the Georgia Heritage Program is tracking a population believed to be this species), but it might instead be an undescribed species closely aligned with C. carolinae.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Six extant and one extirpated occurrences in North Carolina, and one extant occurrence in Virginia according to Anderson (1996).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by habitat degradation and loss. The most threatened population is being encroached on by a trailer park. Road widening and other development present potential threats to two other occurrences. Fire suppression is also a threat (Anderson 1996). Campylopus carolinae would probably be swamped by graminoid and shrubby growth if fires were withheld (Anderson 1996).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Campylopus carolinae was first collected in 1938 (Anderson 1996). The type locality was destroyed several years later by development (Anderson 1996). In 1970, it was rediscovered (Anderson 1996). A population discovered in 1979 still persists but is threatened (Anderson 1996).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Associated with scrub oak-longleaf pine, sandhill vegetation, Campylopus carolinae is obviously fire resistant. Like most savanna-sandhill mosses, it would probably be swamped with graminoid and shrubby growth if fires were withheld. Graminoid cover probably inhibits establishment of the moss (Anderson 1996).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: An Atlantic Coastal Plain endemic, Campylopus carolinae is known from the Fallline Sandhills and in the Coastal Fringe Sandhills, in southeastern Virginia and in North Carolina (Anderson 1996). It may also occur in Georgia and Florida (the Georgia Heritage Program is tracking a population believed to be this species), but it might instead be an undescribed species closely aligned with C. carolinae.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, NC, SC, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Bladen (37017), Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Columbus (37047), Cumberland (37051), Sampson (37163), Scotland (37165)
VA Isle of Wight (51093), Suffolk (City) (51800)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Blackwater (03010202)+, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Black (03030006)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Coastal Carolina (03040208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A moss with leaves that are erect, not much changed upon drying, and end in a bristly hyaline or white hair-point. The moss grows in erect tufts or clumps which are often buried in sand except for the white tips of the leaves (Anderson 1996).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Campylopus carolinae is distinguished by its long hyaline excurrent costa and the single layer of guide cells in the costa (Anderson 1996). In comparison, Campylopus delicatulus' costa is not excurrent as a hyaline awn and its costa has two layers of median guide cells (Crum and Anderson 1981). Campylopus carolinae is very difficult to find because clumps are often buried in sand except for the white tips of the leaves (Anderson 1996). For a technical description see Crum and Anderson (1981) and Anderson (1996).
Habitat Comments: Campylopus carolinae is restricted to scrub oak-longleaf pine, sandhill communities of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. It grows in almost pure quartz sand with a low organic content. The canopy is principally Pinus palustris and the understory is dominated by Quercus laevis, Q. margarettae, and Q. incana and other scattered hardwoods. Associated mosses are Dicranum condensatum, Thelia lescurii, Ditrichum pallidum, Weissia controversa, Campylopus surinamensis, Polytrichum juniperinum, Polytrichum commune var. perigionale, P. piliferum (rarely), Bruchia spp., and Pleuridium spp. Associated lichens are species of Cladonia, sensu lato. (Anderson 1996).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Protect occurrences from development and maintain habitat with prescribed burning. Campylopus carolinae is fire resistant; it would probably be swamped by graminoid and shrubby growth if fires were withheld (Anderson 1996). Continue to search for new occurrences and monitor known populations.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Campylopus carolinae occurs in an excellent quality long leaf pine community.
Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Campylopus carolinae occurs in a good quality long leaf pine community.
Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Campylopus carolinae occurs in a poor quality long leaf pine community that shows signs of shrub encroachment, but is otherwise restorable with appropriate management.
Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Campylopus carolinae occurs in a poor quality community without possibility of restoration such as an area with encroachment by development.
Justification: This species is difficult to survey due to its habit of growing covered in sand. Specifications are based on presence of any quantity of moss and then habitat quality. These specifications should be revised as quantitative information on moss population size becomes available.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 28Oct2004
Author: Amoroso, J.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jul1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: GRIES, D., rev. A. Tomaino (2004)
Management Information Edition Author: INGE SMITH, NCNHP, rev. A. Tomaino (2004)
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): rev. A. Tomaino (2004)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anderson, L.E. 1996. Bryophyte status survey: Campylopus carolinae Grout. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program and Endangered Species Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Asheville, North Carolina. Revised by J.L. Amoroso 1997. 8 pp. and addenda.

  • Anderson, L.E., H.A. Crum, and W.R. Buck. 1990. List of the mosses of North America north of Mexico. The Bryologist 93(4):448-499.

  • Crum, H.A., and L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of eastern North America. 2 Volumes. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 1328 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 27. Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. xxi + 713 pp.

  • Frahm, J. 1980. Synopsis of the genus Campylopus in North America north of Mexico. The Bryologist 83(4):570-588.

  • Frahm, J. 1990. The origin and distribution of Neotropical species of Campylopus. Tropical Bryology 3: 1-18.

  • Frahm, J., and P. L. Redfearn. 1981. Atractylocarpus costaricensis (C. Muell.) Bartr., new to North America north of Mexico, and Campylopus carolinae Grout, new to Florida. Bryologist 84(2): 226-228.

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