Cambarellus shufeldtii - (Faxon, 1884)
Cajun Dwarf Crayfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon, 1884) (TSN 97625)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.115180
Element Code: ICMAL09010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Crustaceans - Crayfishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Crustacea Malacostraca Decapoda Cambaridae Cambarellus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480:1-236.
Concept Reference Code: B89HOB01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cambarellus shufeldtii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17May2010
Global Status Last Changed: 19Feb1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species is common along the Gulf Coast from southcentral Texas eastward to southwestern Alabama and northward in lowlands along the Mississippi River to Lincoln Co., Missouri. This species has a large distribution and is able to inhabit a wide range of habitats. There are no known threats currently impacting the population.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (19Feb1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (SNR), Florida (SNR), Illinois (S3), Kentucky (S2), Louisiana (S5), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (S3?), Tennessee (S5), Texas (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Aug2007)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-200,000 square km (about 2000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Brazos and Colorado river basins in Texas, along Gulf Coast to Pascagoula River basin in Mississippi; up Mississippi River floodplain to southern Illinois, and up floodplains of coastal rivers where habitat suitable. Introduced into Rapides, St. Bernard and St. Tammany Pars, Louisiana, Harris County, Georgia (apparently now extirpated from Georgia), and Clay County, Mississippi (Hobbs, 1989). Pflieger (1996) lists northern range limit as Lincoln Co., Missouri.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Alabama known from 9 records, all from Mobile Co. in the Mobile basin (Mirarchi et al., 2004; appendix 1-2 pub. separately; Schuster and Taylor, 2004; Schuster et al., 2008). In Kentucky, it occurs in the Mississippi River floodplain and drainage in Ballard, Carlisle, Fulton, and Hickman Cos. (Taylor and Schuster, 2004). In Illinois, Page (1985) reported it only from extreme southern Illinois in Alexander, Jackson, Massac, Pulaski and Union Cos., but Taylor and Tucker (2005) found it in Stump Lake, Jersey Co., extending the range 185 km north. In Missorui it is known from the Lowland Faunal Region in southeastern portion of the state (along the lower Black, St. Francis, and Mississippi Rivers) and two localities on the Mississippi River flood plan above the mouth of the Missouri River in St. Charles and Lincoln Cos. (Pflieger, 1996). In Texas it is found occasionally in the eastern and southestern part of the state (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). Peterson et al. (1996) found the species in 5 of 7 surveyed drainages (18 sites in lower Bluff Creek, Tchoutacabouffa River, Biloxi River, Wolf River, Pascagoula River) along the Mississippi Gulf coast.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: There is unlikely to be any major threats impacting Cambarellus shufeldtii.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-200,000 square km (about 2000-80,000 square miles)) Brazos and Colorado river basins in Texas, along Gulf Coast to Pascagoula River basin in Mississippi; up Mississippi River floodplain to southern Illinois, and up floodplains of coastal rivers where habitat suitable. Introduced into Rapides, St. Bernard and St. Tammany Pars, Louisiana, Harris County, Georgia (apparently now extirpated from Georgia), and Clay County, Mississippi (Hobbs, 1989). Pflieger (1996) lists northern range limit as Lincoln Co., Missouri.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, IL, KY, LA, MO, MS, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Mobile (01097)
KY Ballard (21007), Carlisle (21039), Fulton (21075), Hickman (21105)
MO Butler (29023), Mississippi (29133)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Escatawpa (03170008)+*, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
05 Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202)+, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+
11 Upper Black (11010007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a crayfish
General Description: Hooks on ischia of male second and third pereiopod; male first pleopod terminates in three, straight, apically directed elements; annulus ventralis of female comma-shaped (Fitzpatrick, 1983). [LENGTH: to 22 TCL, to 45 TL] [WIDTH: to 7]
Diagnostic Characteristics: Hooks on 2nd & 3rd pereiopods; straight terminal elements; comma-shaped annulus.
Reproduction Comments: Black, working in SE LA, found only slight evidence of peaks of reproductive activity, working principally with male cycles (Black, 1966). On the other hand, Lowe, working with females in a population about 100 mi NW of Black found distinct peaks (Lowe, 1961).
Ecology Comments: Very aggressive species; dominant in heirarchy when other CAMBARELLUS species present; has displaced other members of genus in modern times (Penn & Fitzpatrick, 1963).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: No empirical data, but home range probably does not exceed 25 m dia.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Prefers sluggish to standing water; tolerant of elevated temperatures. Will burrow during dry periods. It occurs in ditches, marshes, swamps, lakes, ponds, and sluggish streams (Hobbs, 1989). In Texas, it occurs in shallow waters with aquatic plant cover and underground cells into which individuals can take refuge during droughts or in dry summers (Johnson and Johnson, 2008).
Adult Food Habits: Detritivore
Immature Food Habits: Detritivore
Food Comments: No data; probably opportunisitic, mostly detritus.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: No know economic value to humans; commonly used as experimental subject by experimental biologists.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Crayfishes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are based on hydrological discontinuity. Additional physical barriers, particularly for secondary and tertiary burrowers, include presence of upland habitat between water connections of a distance greater than 30 m. Migration of primary burrowers is generally not hindered by presence of upland habitat unless conditions are very xeric (dry and desert-like) (Smith, 2001).
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave (troglobitic) species may occur from near entrances to very deep in cave systems. For cave species, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance unless caves are part of a single hydrological system (see below). Occurrences are additionally separated by underground physical barriers to movement. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered to be a single element occurrence when they are less than one km apart. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered separate element occurrences when hydrological connections have not been determined or when separated by a distance of at least one km.
Separation Justification: Habitat for these creatures is primarily separated according to each species' burrowing ability. All crayfish are able to burrow to some extent and this ability will help determine the range of habitats in which a species can be found. Burrowing in the Astacidae is limited to streambed and bank excavation (Hobbs, 1988). The Cambaridae, as a whole are much more adept at burrowing than the Astacidae. As a result, they possess a greater habitat range than the Astacidae including dry water bodies (Hogger, 1988).

The burrowers can be classified into three categories: primary burrowers, secondary burrowers, and tertiary burrowers. Primary burrowers tend to remain in their burrows continuously and live in areas without permanent water except during breeding when they must migrate to a nearby water source (Hogger, 1988). The prairies of eastern and central Mississippi and western Alabama are an example of primary burrower habitat (Hogger, 1988). Secondary burrowers remain in burrows during dry periods but emerge when habitats are inundated seasonally. Such habitat includes lentic systems flooded periodically but dry in summer (Huner and Romaire, 1979) and permanent and temporary ponds and swamps in the southern United States. Tertiary burrowers do not burrow except during infrequent drought conditions and/or during breeding season. Both flowing and standing water can be tertiary burrower habitat.

Because primary burrowers, and to a lesser extent secondary burrowers, can occupy xeric habitats, separation barriers for such species do not include presence of upland habitat except in extremely dry conditions. Survival during dry periods, particularly for secondary burrowers, is dependent upon construction of a burrow regardless of season. Several different types have been described (Smith, 2001) depending on species, soil, and depth of water table.

Published information about movement in relation to migration distance is lacking but Cooper (1998, personal communication) and Fitzpatrick (1998, personal communication) both recommend a separation distance of one km between element occurrences. Dispersal patterns are best known for invasive species which likely have the greatest dispersal capability, therefore, separation distances have been determined for all crayfish based on these studies. Guan and Wiles (1997) provided evidence from the River Great Ouse in the United Kingdom that the range of movement for the majority of the invasive Pacifastacus leniusculus was within 190 m. Bubb et al. (2004) also studied P. leniusculus in England using radio-tagging and found median maximal upstream and downstream movement distances were 13.5 m (range 0-283 m) and 15 m (range 0-417 m), respectively. Barbaresi et al. (2004) found that ranging speed in the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) to be slow (0.3 to 76.5 m/day) with the widest ranging individual traveling 304 m. Lewis and Horton (1996) found that 21% of tagged Pacifastacus leniusculus in an Oregon harvest pond moved >1000 m in one year while the majority moved <500 m. As such minimum separation distance (unsuitable and suitable) has been set at the NatureServe standard minimum of two km.

Exposed pools and streams in caves represent "karst windows" into more extensive underground streams. No information on the distance cave crayfish can disperse in underground streams is yet available.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Primary burrowers include the following taxa: Cambarus (Cambarus) carolinus, C. (C.) diogenes diogenes, C. (Depressicambarus) catagius, C. (D.) cymatilis, C. (D.) deweesae, C. (D.) harti, C. (D.) reflexus, C. (D.) pyronotus, C. (D.) striatus, C. (D.) strigosus, C. (D.) truncatus, C. (Glareocola), C. (Jugicambarus) batchi, C. (J.) carolinus, C. (J.) causeyi, C. (J.) dubius, C. (J.) gentryi, C. (J.) monongalensis, C. (J.) nodosus, C. (Lacunicambarus), C. (Tubericambarus), Distocambarus, Fallicambarus, Procambarus (Acucauda), P. (Distocambarus), P. (Girardiella) barbiger, P. (G.) cometes, P. (G.) connus, P. (G.) curdi, P. (G.) gracilis, P. (G.) hagenianus hagenianus, P. (G.) hagenianus vesticeps, P. (G.) liberorum, P. (G.) pogum, P. (Hagenides) [except P. pygmaeus]
Secondary burrowers include the following taxa: Cambarus (Cambarus) ortmanni, C. (Depressicambarus) latimanus, C. (D.) reduncus, Hobbseus, Procambarus (Cambarus) clarkii, P. (Girardiella) kensleyi, P. (G.) reimeri, P. (G.) simulans, P. (G.) steigmani, P. (G.) tulanei, P. (Hagenides) pygmaeus, P. (Leconticambarus) [excepting P. alleni and P. milleri], P. (Ortmannicus) [excepting the cave dwelling species], P. (Tenuicambarus)
Tertiary burrowers include the following taxa: Barbicambarus, Bouchardina, Cambarus (Cambarus) angularis, C. (C.) bartonii carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) howardi, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Depressicambarus) englishi, C. (D.) graysoni, C. (D.) halli, C. (D.) obstipus, C. (D.) sphenoides, C. (Erebicambarus) ornatus, C. (E.) rusticiformis, C. (Exilicambarus) cracens, C. (Hiaticambarus), C. (Jugicambarus) asperimanus, C. (J.) bouchardi, C. (J.) crinipes, C. (J.) distans, C. (J.) friaufi, C. (J.) obeyensis, C. (J.) parvoculus, C. (J.) unestami, C. (Puncticambarus) [excepting the cave dwelling species], C. (Veticambarus), Cambarellus, Faxonella, Orconectes [excepting the cave dwelling species], Pacifastacus, Procambarus (Capillicambarus), P. (Girardiella) ceruleus, P.

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17May2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Sep2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J. (2008); FITZPATRICK, J.F. (1991)

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Black, J. B. 1966. Cyclic male reproductive activities in the dwarf crawfishes Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon) and Cambarellus puer Hobbs. Transactions of the Amererican Microscopical Society 85(2):214- 232.

  • Fitzpatrick, J.F., Jr. 1983. A revision of the dwarf crawfishes (Cambaridae, Cambarellinae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 3(2):266-277.

  • Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480:1-236.

  • Johnson, S.K. and N.K. Johnson. 2008. Texas Crawdads. Crawdad Club Designs: College Station, Texas. 160 pp.

  • Lowe, M. E. 1961. The female reproductive cycle of the crayfish CAMBARELLUS SHUFELDTI: The influence of environmental factors. Tulane Stud. Zool. 8:157-176.

  • McLaughlin, P.A., D.K. Camp, M.V. Angel, E.L. Bousfield, P. Brunel, R.C. Brusca, D. Cadien, A.C. Cohen, K. Conlan, L.G. Eldredge, D.L. Felder, J.W. Goy, T. Haney, B. Hann, R.W. Heard, E.A. Hendrycks, H.H. Hobbs III, J.R. Holsinger, B. Kensley, D.R. Laubitz, S.E. LeCroy, R. Lemaitre, R.F. Maddocks, J.W. Martin, P. Mikkelsen, E. Nelson, W.A. Newman, R.M. Overstreet, W.J. Poly, W.W. Price, J.W. Reid, A. Robertson, D.C. Rogers, A. Ross, M. Schotte, F. Schram, C. Shih, L. Watling, G.D.F. Wilson, and D.D. Turgeon. 2005. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil. 2004d. Alabama Wildlife. Volume Four: Conservation and Management Recommendations for Imperiled Wildlife. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1985. The crayfishes and shrimps (Decapoda) of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 33(4): 335-448.

  • Peterson, M. S., J. F. Fitzpatrick, Jr., and S. J. VanderKooy. 1996. Distribution and habitat use by dwarf crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae: Cambarellus). Wetlands 16:594-598.

  • Pflieger, W.L. [B. Dryden, editor]. 1996. The Crayfishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri. 152 pp.

  • Schuster, G. A. and C.A. Taylor. 2004. Report on the crayfishes of Alabama: literature and museum database review, species list with abbreviated annotations and proposed conservation statuses. Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report, 2004(12): 47 pp.

  • Schuster, G.A., C.A. Taylor, and J. Johansen. 2008. An annotated checklist and preliminary designation of drainage distributions of the crayfishes of Alabama. Southeastern Naturalist, 7(3): 493-504.

  • Taylor, C.A. and G.A. Schuster. 2004. The Crayfishes of Kentucky. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication, 28: viii + 210 pp.

  • Taylor, C.A. and J.K. Tucker. 2005. New distributional records for Illinois crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) with comments onthe continued spread of non-native species. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 98(1-2):75-80.

  • Taylor, C.A., G.A. Schuster, J.E. Cooper, R.J. DiStefano, A.G. Eversole, P. Hamr, H.H. Hobbs III, H.W. Robison, C.E. Skelton, and R.F. Thoma. 2007. A reassessment of the conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada after 10+ years of increased awareness. Fisheries 32(8):371-389.

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