Cambarellus puer - Hobbs, 1945
Swamp Dwarf Crayfish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cambarellus puer Hobbs, 1945 (TSN 97623)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106894
Element Code: ICMAL09040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Crustaceans - Crayfishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Crustacea Malacostraca Decapoda Cambaridae Cambarellus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480:1-236.
Concept Reference Code: B89HOB01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cambarellus puer
Taxonomic Comments: Some populations now in nw LA and sw AR may represent a different undescribed species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17May2010
Global Status Last Changed: 12Sep2006
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species is secure in the central Coastal Plain from extreme southern Illinois south to the coasts of eastern Texas and Louisiana and into Oklahoma. It is a generalist species with no known threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (12Sep2006)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (SNR), Illinois (S2), Kentucky (S1), Louisiana (S4S5), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (S3?), Oklahoma (S1), Tennessee (S4S5), Texas (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Aug2007)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: From Brazos and Brazoria counties, Texas, along Gulf Coastal Plain to western tributary drainages of Pearl River, Louisiana, up the Mississippi flood plain to southern Illinois, and up associated flood plains of larger rivers to about fall line. Precise range extent in southwest Arkansas and adjacent areas vague (Hobbs, 1989) but into Oklahoma (Taylor et al., 2004) in the southeastern portion of the state.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In the original description, Hobbs (1945) cites a ditch west of Dayton, Liberty Co., Texas. In Kentucky, it occurs from the Mayfield Creek drainage, a Mississippi River tributary, along the Graves-McCracken Co. line (Taylor and Schuster, 2004). It was recently documented in Oklahoma in an unnamed swamp (Little River, Red River drainage) south of Broken Bow, McCurtain Co. (Taylor et al., 2004). In Missouri, it occurs in or adjacent to the Lowland Faunal Region in the southeastern part of the state (Pflieger, 1996). In Texas, it occurs from the lower Brazos River basin into eastern Texas and from there into states to the east and northeast (Johnson and Johnson, 2008).

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: It is unlikely that any major threats are impacting upon Cambarellus puer.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) From Brazos and Brazoria counties, Texas, along Gulf Coastal Plain to western tributary drainages of Pearl River, Louisiana, up the Mississippi flood plain to southern Illinois, and up associated flood plains of larger rivers to about fall line. Precise range extent in southwest Arkansas and adjacent areas vague (Hobbs, 1989) but into Oklahoma (Taylor et al., 2004) in the southeastern portion of the state.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, IL, KY, LA, MO, MS, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Graves (21083), McCracken (21145)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
06 Lower Tennessee (06040006)+
08 Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a crayfish
General Description: Hooks on second third pereiopods of male. First pleopod of male terminating in three elements, mesial process straight, subacute and directed at nearly 90 degrees to main axis of appendage; central projection curved and likewise at 90 degrees angle; caudal process straight and directed at about 45 degrees angle, extending about as far as central projection. Cervical spines strong (Fitzpatrick, 1983). [LENGTH: to 15 TCL, to 35 TL] [WIDTH: to 7]
Diagnostic Characteristics: Hooks on 2nd & 3rd pereiopods; mesial process subacute and straight, although directed at 90 degree angle to pleopod, widely separated from other two elements.
Reproduction Comments: Year round breeder without seasonal peaks in SE LA (Black, 1966); first major sperm production in 1st year, followed by second major output one year later.
Ecology Comments: Tolerant of warm water, low gas levels, but seems to require submergent vegetation.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: No data; home range probably does not exceed 25 m dia.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Found commonly in sluggish streams, sloughs, roadside ditches; will burrow during dry periods. In Missouri it avoids the central, more intensively ditched and drained part of the lowlands but is frequently found in roadside ditches, ponds, and cypress swamps, with some occurrences in slow-flowing bayous and creeks in Louisiana (Pflieger, 1996). In Texas, it occurs in shallow waters with aquatic plant cover and underground cells into which individuals can take refuge during droughts or in dry summers (Johnson and Johnson, 2008).
Adult Food Habits: Detritivore
Immature Food Habits: Detritivore
Food Comments: No data; probably opportunisitic, mostly detritus.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Data inconclusive.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: No known economic value to humans.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Crayfishes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are based on hydrological discontinuity. Additional physical barriers, particularly for secondary and tertiary burrowers, include presence of upland habitat between water connections of a distance greater than 30 m. Migration of primary burrowers is generally not hindered by presence of upland habitat unless conditions are very xeric (dry and desert-like) (Smith, 2001).
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave (troglobitic) species may occur from near entrances to very deep in cave systems. For cave species, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance unless caves are part of a single hydrological system (see below). Occurrences are additionally separated by underground physical barriers to movement. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered to be a single element occurrence when they are less than one km apart. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered separate element occurrences when hydrological connections have not been determined or when separated by a distance of at least one km.
Separation Justification: Habitat for these creatures is primarily separated according to each species' burrowing ability. All crayfish are able to burrow to some extent and this ability will help determine the range of habitats in which a species can be found. Burrowing in the Astacidae is limited to streambed and bank excavation (Hobbs, 1988). The Cambaridae, as a whole are much more adept at burrowing than the Astacidae. As a result, they possess a greater habitat range than the Astacidae including dry water bodies (Hogger, 1988).

The burrowers can be classified into three categories: primary burrowers, secondary burrowers, and tertiary burrowers. Primary burrowers tend to remain in their burrows continuously and live in areas without permanent water except during breeding when they must migrate to a nearby water source (Hogger, 1988). The prairies of eastern and central Mississippi and western Alabama are an example of primary burrower habitat (Hogger, 1988). Secondary burrowers remain in burrows during dry periods but emerge when habitats are inundated seasonally. Such habitat includes lentic systems flooded periodically but dry in summer (Huner and Romaire, 1979) and permanent and temporary ponds and swamps in the southern United States. Tertiary burrowers do not burrow except during infrequent drought conditions and/or during breeding season. Both flowing and standing water can be tertiary burrower habitat.

Because primary burrowers, and to a lesser extent secondary burrowers, can occupy xeric habitats, separation barriers for such species do not include presence of upland habitat except in extremely dry conditions. Survival during dry periods, particularly for secondary burrowers, is dependent upon construction of a burrow regardless of season. Several different types have been described (Smith, 2001) depending on species, soil, and depth of water table.

Published information about movement in relation to migration distance is lacking but Cooper (1998, personal communication) and Fitzpatrick (1998, personal communication) both recommend a separation distance of one km between element occurrences. Dispersal patterns are best known for invasive species which likely have the greatest dispersal capability, therefore, separation distances have been determined for all crayfish based on these studies. Guan and Wiles (1997) provided evidence from the River Great Ouse in the United Kingdom that the range of movement for the majority of the invasive Pacifastacus leniusculus was within 190 m. Bubb et al. (2004) also studied P. leniusculus in England using radio-tagging and found median maximal upstream and downstream movement distances were 13.5 m (range 0-283 m) and 15 m (range 0-417 m), respectively. Barbaresi et al. (2004) found that ranging speed in the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) to be slow (0.3 to 76.5 m/day) with the widest ranging individual traveling 304 m. Lewis and Horton (1996) found that 21% of tagged Pacifastacus leniusculus in an Oregon harvest pond moved >1000 m in one year while the majority moved <500 m. As such minimum separation distance (unsuitable and suitable) has been set at the NatureServe standard minimum of two km.

Exposed pools and streams in caves represent "karst windows" into more extensive underground streams. No information on the distance cave crayfish can disperse in underground streams is yet available.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Primary burrowers include the following taxa: Cambarus (Cambarus) carolinus, C. (C.) diogenes diogenes, C. (Depressicambarus) catagius, C. (D.) cymatilis, C. (D.) deweesae, C. (D.) harti, C. (D.) reflexus, C. (D.) pyronotus, C. (D.) striatus, C. (D.) strigosus, C. (D.) truncatus, C. (Glareocola), C. (Jugicambarus) batchi, C. (J.) carolinus, C. (J.) causeyi, C. (J.) dubius, C. (J.) gentryi, C. (J.) monongalensis, C. (J.) nodosus, C. (Lacunicambarus), C. (Tubericambarus), Distocambarus, Fallicambarus, Procambarus (Acucauda), P. (Distocambarus), P. (Girardiella) barbiger, P. (G.) cometes, P. (G.) connus, P. (G.) curdi, P. (G.) gracilis, P. (G.) hagenianus hagenianus, P. (G.) hagenianus vesticeps, P. (G.) liberorum, P. (G.) pogum, P. (Hagenides) [except P. pygmaeus]
Secondary burrowers include the following taxa: Cambarus (Cambarus) ortmanni, C. (Depressicambarus) latimanus, C. (D.) reduncus, Hobbseus, Procambarus (Cambarus) clarkii, P. (Girardiella) kensleyi, P. (G.) reimeri, P. (G.) simulans, P. (G.) steigmani, P. (G.) tulanei, P. (Hagenides) pygmaeus, P. (Leconticambarus) [excepting P. alleni and P. milleri], P. (Ortmannicus) [excepting the cave dwelling species], P. (Tenuicambarus)
Tertiary burrowers include the following taxa: Barbicambarus, Bouchardina, Cambarus (Cambarus) angularis, C. (C.) bartonii carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) howardi, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Depressicambarus) englishi, C. (D.) graysoni, C. (D.) halli, C. (D.) obstipus, C. (D.) sphenoides, C. (Erebicambarus) ornatus, C. (E.) rusticiformis, C. (Exilicambarus) cracens, C. (Hiaticambarus), C. (Jugicambarus) asperimanus, C. (J.) bouchardi, C. (J.) crinipes, C. (J.) distans, C. (J.) friaufi, C. (J.) obeyensis, C. (J.) parvoculus, C. (J.) unestami, C. (Puncticambarus) [excepting the cave dwelling species], C. (Veticambarus), Cambarellus, Faxonella, Orconectes [excepting the cave dwelling species], Pacifastacus, Procambarus (Capillicambarus), P. (Girardiella) ceruleus, P.

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17May2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Mar2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J. (2009);FITZPATRICK, J.F. (1991)

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Black, J. B. 1966. Cyclic male reproductive activities in the dwarf crawfishes Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon) and Cambarellus puer Hobbs. Transactions of the Amererican Microscopical Society 85(2):214- 232.

  • Fitzpatrick, J.F., Jr. 1983. A revision of the dwarf crawfishes (Cambaridae, Cambarellinae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 3(2):266-277.

  • Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1945. Two new species of crayfishes of the genus Cambarellus from the Gulf coastal states, with a key to the species of the genus (Decapoda, Astacidae). American Midland Naturalist 34(2):466-474.

  • Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480:1-236.

  • Johnson, S.K. and N.K. Johnson. 2008. Texas Crawdads. Crawdad Club Designs: College Station, Texas. 160 pp.

  • McLaughlin, P.A., D.K. Camp, M.V. Angel, E.L. Bousfield, P. Brunel, R.C. Brusca, D. Cadien, A.C. Cohen, K. Conlan, L.G. Eldredge, D.L. Felder, J.W. Goy, T. Haney, B. Hann, R.W. Heard, E.A. Hendrycks, H.H. Hobbs III, J.R. Holsinger, B. Kensley, D.R. Laubitz, S.E. LeCroy, R. Lemaitre, R.F. Maddocks, J.W. Martin, P. Mikkelsen, E. Nelson, W.A. Newman, R.M. Overstreet, W.J. Poly, W.W. Price, J.W. Reid, A. Robertson, D.C. Rogers, A. Ross, M. Schotte, F. Schram, C. Shih, L. Watling, G.D.F. Wilson, and D.D. Turgeon. 2005. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp.

  • Pflieger, W.L. [B. Dryden, editor]. 1996. The Crayfishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri. 152 pp.

  • Taylor, C.A. and G.A. Schuster. 2004. The Crayfishes of Kentucky. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication, 28: viii + 210 pp.

  • Taylor, C.A., G.A. Schuster, J.E. Cooper, R.J. DiStefano, A.G. Eversole, P. Hamr, H.H. Hobbs III, H.W. Robison, C.E. Skelton, and R.F. Thoma. 2007. A reassessment of the conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada after 10+ years of increased awareness. Fisheries 32(8):371-389.

  • Taylor, C.A., S.N. Jones, and E.A. Bergey. 2004. Crayfishes of Oklahoma revisited: new state records and checklist of species. Southwestern Naturalist, 49(2): 250-255.

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