Calopogon multiflorus - Lindl.
Many-flower Grass-pink
Other Common Names: manyflower grasspink
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Calopogon multiflorus Lindl. (TSN 43504)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138609
Element Code: PMORC0C020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Calopogon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Calopogon multiflorus
Taxonomic Comments: This species has had a variety of different scientific names (Lindley 1840, Ames 1908, Brummitt 2000, Correll 1950, Goldman 1998, Goldman 2000, Kuntz 1891, Mohr 1897, Rafinesque 1833, Small 1905, Walter 1788). This complicated history has been studied (Goldman 1998, Goldman 2000) and is explained and summarized in a recent status survey (Schotz 2004).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Jul2014
Global Status Last Changed: 18Jun2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: A Southeastern Coastal Plain endemic, predominantly found in Florida (where scattered over much of the state), with a few outlying occurrences in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina, and, historically, Georgia. This species requires fire to open up habitat and stimulate flowering. Historically described as common in central Florida, but only about 6,000 plants are estimated to remain in that state. Much of this species' habitat has been destroyed by land-use conversion (to pine plantations, for example), habitat fragmentation, and fire suppression. To some degree, these threats continue to impact the species, however, many remaining occurrences are located on state or federal lands. Nevertheless, the fire requirements of this species may not be able to be met on all of these otherwise protected sites.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S2S3), Georgia (SH), Louisiana (S1), Mississippi (S1), North Carolina (S1), South Carolina (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: A Southeastern Coastal Plain endemic. Generalized range extends through most of Florida (Luer 1972); formerly described as common in central Florida (Wunderlin, 1982). Rare in the other states within the range (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina), where known only from scattered, small occurrences; considered historical in Georgia. Apparently not extending into the Caribbean.

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy estimated to be approximately 252 square km, or 63 4 km-square occupied grid cells.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 64 occurrences are believed extant. Most extant sites are in Florida (56), but there are others scattered through the southeast. There are extant sites in NC (4), MS (1), AL (1), LA (1), and SC (1). While Luer (1972) shows an extensive range throughout Florida and there are many herbarium specimens, the number of known populations has declined.

Population Size Comments: As now known, Florida contains the greatest number of populations with an estimated 6,000 individuals on about 750,000 acres of public and private lands. Elsewhere in its range, the species is considered extremely rare, with less than ten confirmed occurrences outside Florida (Schotz 2004), none of which are known to be large.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Approximately 6 occurrences are believed to have excellent viability and 17 to have good viability.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation (resulting from, e.g., conversion to pine plantations) as well as incompatible forest management practices such as fire suppression (Chafin 2000, Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Lack of prescribed fire and conversion of natural flatwoods to pine plantations are reducing the available habitat.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Historically, throughout Florida (Luer 1972), and formerly reported as common in central Florida (Wunderlin, 1982).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Requires fire to open up habitat and stimulate flowering. Unknown how long it can remain dormant through adverse conditions.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: A Southeastern Coastal Plain endemic. Generalized range extends through most of Florida (Luer 1972); formerly described as common in central Florida (Wunderlin, 1982). Rare in the other states within the range (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina), where known only from scattered, small occurrences; considered historical in Georgia. Apparently not extending into the Caribbean.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Mobile (01097)
FL Charlotte (12015), Clay (12019), Collier (12021), Franklin (12037), Highlands (12055), Leon (12073), Liberty (12077), Manatee (12081), Martin (12085), Nassau (12089), Okaloosa (12091), Okeechobee (12093), Orange (12095), Osceola (12097), Palm Beach (12099), Polk (12105), Wakulla (12129)
GA Camden (13039)*, Charlton (13049)*, Clinch (13065)*, Echols (13101)*, Liberty (13179)*, Long (13183)*, Thomas (13275)*
LA St. Tammany (22103)
MS Hancock (28045)*, Jackson (28059)
NC Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Onslow (37133), Pender (37141)
SC Berkeley (45015), Charleston (45019)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 White Oak River (03020301)+, New River (03020302)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Coastal Carolina (03040208)+, Santee (03050112)+, Cooper (03050201)+, Canoochee (03060203)+*, Satilla (03070201)+*, Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203)+*, St. Marys (03070204)+, Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Lower St. Johns (03080103)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Lake Okeechobee (03090201)+, Big Cypress Swamp (03090204)+, Caloosahatchee (03090205)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+, Peace (03100101)+, Myakka (03100102)+, Charlotte Harbor (03100103)+, Manatee (03100202)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+*, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Upper Ochlockonee (03120002)+*, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, New (03130013)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Escatawpa (03170008)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
08 Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Spring-flowering orchid with most to all flowers on a stalk opening at once.
General Description: Plant is scapose, erect, rigid, glabrous, 1.5-4.5dm tall. Stem green below and dark purple above, usually geniculate at the base. Occasionally two stems are produced from the same corm. Leaves (when present) one or two, basal, narrowly linear, long-acuminate, firm and rigid, strongly ribbed, conduplicate, 4-19 cm long, mostly less than 5mm wide. Raceme densely or laxly six to ten flowered, elongated, with the flowers opening in rapid succession, 3.5-15cm. long, 3-3.5cm in diameter. Floral bracts are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, long acuminate, 5-10 mm long. Flowers are vividly deep magenta to crimson with slender pedicellate ovaries 6-10mm (Correll 1950). The flowers are infrequently pale pink (Luer 1972).
Technical Description: From Goldman and Orzell (2000): Plants herbaceous, terrestrial, sympodial, scapose, and erect, 17-33(-50) cm tall. Roots 2-10 or rarely more, thin and unbranched, whitish. Corm horizontally elongated, unequally forked in mature plants, white to greenish purple, 1.8-4.0 x 0.4-1.4 cm along the long axis, the smaller fork 0.2-2.0 x 0.4-1.3 cm; 0.5-1.1 cm high with two axillary buds, one at the apex of each of the forks; typically with two basal scarious, sheathing bracts, the lowest one relatively small, mostly subterranean, the second 2.5-6.0 cm long, magenta to dark purple. Roots developing at the junction of the old corm and new growth, with new corm developing after anthesis. Leaves linear, one or rarely two, coriaceous, occasionally minutely crenate along the margin, 3-15 cm long at time of anthesis, 6-41 cm at dormancy, 0.3-1.0 cm wide. Flowering stems erect, dark purple, occasionally greenish toward base, turning green after anthesis, 17-33(-50) x 0.1-0.2 cm long. Floral bracts ovate, ovate-lanceolate, to subulate, 0.3-0.8 x 0.3-0.5 cm. Flower buds oblong, apiculate to slightly acuminate, 0.8-1.1 cm long, 0.45-0.70 cm wide laterally, 0.55-0.90 cm dorsally, at 0.5-1.3 cm intervals along rachis. Flowers 2-15, nonresupinate, crimson, magenta, or rarely pink opening in rapid succession, 75% to rarely 100% open simultaneously, calyx and corolla similarly colored. Floral odor at peak anthesis a sweet pungent fragrance reminiscent of Acacia farnesiana flowers, strongest on bright sunlit days with warm temperatures. Lateral sepals ovate to slightly lanceolate, apiculate to acuminate, occasionally keeled apically, slightly apically decurved, 1.0-1.2 x 0.6-0.9 cm. Dorsal sepal obovate-oblanceolate, slightly acuminate, 0.9-1.7 x 0.5-0.8 cm. Petals with a claw, pandurate to obovate-oblanceolate, narrowed toward middle, 0.8-1.4 x 0.45-0.8 cm, often closely appressed to column. Labellum obscurely three-lobed, 0.7-1.2 cm long, basal lobes tiny, triangular to rounded, labellum width 0.3-0.5 cm across basal lobes; midlobe greatly elongated, dilated above a basal isthmus 0.2-0.25 cm wide, triangular to slightly rounded, 0.7-1.3 cm wide, apex obtusely triangular, rounded, retuse or apiculate; rounded disk of yellow, white, and orange trichomes at the center of the dilated portion of the midlobe, expanding from two to three raised ridges occurring longitudinally along base of midlobe; trichomes 0.2-0.4 cm long, a small triangular region of stout pink trichomes occurring apically to disk, with a white patch commonly on the reverse side of the labellum behind disk. Column the same color as perianth, narrowly winged, incurved, stout, 0.55-0.75 cm long, narrowed basally 0.1-0.2 cm wide, greatly expanded apically about the stigma and anther, 0.5-0.7 cm wide; stigma typically crimson, flat against column surface, 0.1-0.2 cm long, 0.2-0.4 cm wide; anther yellow, pollinia four. Ovary 0.6-1.1 cm. Capsule 1.3-2.2 x 0.4-0.7 cm when mature, ovoid to slightly obconical. Flowering early March through late May, with intermittent flowering occurring from December through February.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Calopogon multiflorus can be confused with several similar taxa which occur nearby, specifically Calopogon barbatus. However, the combination of the petals being wider distally (above the middle), the presence of purple stems at the time of flowering, and its preference for well-drained soils of pine savannas-flatwoods and dry prairies distinguish this species from all others which occur nearby (Schotz 2004). This species tends to have more flowers in the raceme and flowers are constantly widest above the middle; C. barbatus is constantly widest below the middle. The floral bracts of C. multiflorus are 5-10mm long and those of C. barbatus are 2-5mm long. The flowering period of C. multiflorus lasts until mid summer, while the flowering period of C. barbatus ends in May (Correll 1950).
Reproduction Comments: It flowers from early March (rarely in February) to July (Correll 1950, Luer 1972). It flowers primarily in April (Luer 1972).
Ecology Comments: The species thrives with habitat disturbance from fire; the plants demonstrate more vigorous flowering after fire disturbance (Goldman and Orzell 2000).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Calopogon multiflorus has a preference for well-drained soils of open, damp to somewhat drier pine savannas-flatwoods and meadows. This distinguishes it from related species (i.e., C. barbatus, C. oklahomensis, C. pallidus, C. tuberosus) which prefer hydric to wet-mesic or occasionally mesic sites (Goldman and Orzell 2000, Schotz 2004). Calopogon multiflorus is often found flowering in palmetto fields or pinelands that have been burned the preceding winter; in burned flat pinelands, this orchid is able to return with vigor (Luer 1972). It is also sometimes found in pine barrens among saw palmetto, on the edge of hammocks, or in pitcher plant bogs.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and abundance of plants. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Prioritize surveying EOs that haven't been visited for 20+ years. Seek long term protection for exceptional sites. Review most critical threats and consider the feasibility of their removal and how their removal will impact the quality of habitat for the species, as well as other species of interest. This orchid needs prescribed fire in order for it to persist at sites and should be considered in management plans (Schotz 2004).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Jan2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Morse, L.E. (1995), rev. C. Nordman (2009), rev. A. Treher (2016)
Management Information Edition Date: 10Aug2014
Management Information Edition Author: Treher
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Mar2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): rev. C. Nordman (2009)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ames, O. 1908. New species and names of American Orchidaceae. Pages 258-273 in: O. Ames. Orchidaceae: Illustrations and studies of the family Orchidaceae, 2, IX. Houghton Mifflin and Company, New York.

  • Brummitt, R.K. 2000. Report of the committee for Spermatophyta. Taxon 49:261-278.

  • Chafin, L. 2008. Rare plant species profiles. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Wildlife Division. GDNR, WRS. Online. Available: http://www.georgiawildlife.com/sites/default/files/uploads/wildlife/nongame/pdf/accounts/plants/calopogon_multiflorus.pdf. (Accessed 11 Dec 2014).

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Corell, D.S. 1950. Native orchids of North America, north of Mexico. Waltham, MA: Chronica Botanica.

  • Correll, D.S. 1940. A contribution to our knowledge of the orchids of the southeastern United States. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 8:69-92.

  • Correll, D.S. 1950 [1978]. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 400 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 712 pp.

  • Goldman, D.H. 1998. Proposal to conserve the name Ophrys barbata (Orchidaceae) with a conserved type. Taxon 47:161-162.

  • Goldman, D.H. 2000. Systematics of Calopogon and tribe Arethuseae (Orchidaceae). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, TX.

  • Goldman, D.H., and S.L. Orzell. 2000. Morphological, geographical, and ecological re-evaluation of Calopogon Lindleyana 15(4): 237-251 2000.

  • Goldman, D.H., and S.L. Orzell. 2000. Morphological, geographical, and ecological reevaluation of Calopogon multiflorus (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 15:237-251.

  • Hickman, G.L., and C. Owens. 1980. Soil survey of Mobile County, Alabama. USDA Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kuntze, C.E.O. 1891. Reviso generum plantarum 2: A. Felix, Leipzig.

  • LeBlond, R.J. 1996. Inventory of Rare Species, Natural Communities, and Critical Areas of Camp Lejeune Marine Corps Base, North Carolina - Phase III (draft).

  • Leonard, Steve. 1999. State conservation ranking recommendations for species included in the paper:Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908.

  • Lindley, J. 1840. The genera and species of Orchidaceous plants. Reprint 1963. Asher and Co., Amsterdam.

  • Luer, C. A. 1972. The native orchids of Florida. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 293 pp.

  • Luer, C.A. 1972. The native orchids of Florida. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

  • Mohr, C. 1897. Notes on some undescribed and little known plants of the Alabama flora. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24:19-32.

  • Rafinesque, C.S. 1833. Atlantic journal and friend of knowledge. Published by the author, Philadelphia.

  • Schotz, A. 2004. Rangewide status survey on Calopogon multiflorus, many-flowered grass-pink. Alabama Natural Heritage Program, Montgomery, AL. Unpublished report for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 17 pp. + 3 appendices.

  • Schotz, Alfred. 2004. Rangewide status survey on Calopogon multiflorus, many-flowered grass-pink. Alabama Natural Heritage Program, Montgomery Al. Unpublished report for US Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Office, Jackson, MS 39213. 17 pp. +3 Appendices.

  • Small, J.K. 1905. Additions to the flora of subtropical Florida. Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 3:421.

  • Sorrie, B.A. 1999. Species ranking for noteworthy plants of Mississippi (A99SOR01MSUS). E-mail of Sept. 1, 1999 to MSHP.

  • Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908. Address: BRUCE SORRIE, 3076 NIAGARA-CARTHAGE ROAD, WHISPERING PINES, NC 28327

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. 50 CFR Part 17. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; review of plant taxa for listing as endangered or threatened species; notice of review. Federal Register 58:51144-51190 (September 30).

  • USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. 50 CFR Part 17. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; review of plant and animal taxa that are candidates for listing as endangered or threatened species; notice of review. Federal Register 61:7595-7613 (February 28).

  • Walter, T. 1788. Flora Caroliniana. J. Fraser, London.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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