Calochortus persistens - Ownbey
Siskiyou Mariposa Lily
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Calochortus persistens Ownbey (TSN 42865)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154322
Element Code: PMLIL0D140
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Calochortus
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Calochortus persistens
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Jul2015
Global Status Last Changed: 29Jul2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: The species Calochortus persistens is endemic to the Siskiyou Mountains of northern California and to one site in nearby Oregon. The total number of occurrences is 6. The populations are threatened at nearly all sites by the invasion of non-native plants (especially Isatis tinctoria, a Calochortus germination inhibitor), and at some sites possibly by roads, trampling, and fire. Although some of the populations are on federal lands (Klamath National Forest), there may be no protected occurrences that are specifically managed to maintain the species. Weed-control work is under way at some sites. The affect of Isatis tinctoria¿, OHV use and other impacts over the next few decades will be critical to evaluate the status of this plant over time. The global rank of this should be reviewed often, incorporating recent survey data, due to the low number of occurrences.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (S1), Oregon (S1)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: Removed from Candidate status in the October 8, 2015 Federal Register. "We find that listing Calochortus persistens as a threatened or an endangered species or maintaining the species as a candidate is not warranted throughout all or a significant portion of its range at this time, and consequently we are removing it from candidate status." (USFWS 2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in Siskiyou County, California and adjacent Oregon on disjunct ridgetops of Klamath-Siskiyou Mountain Range.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: This plant is known from Siskiyou County in northern California and is known from about 5 occurrences. There is also one small population of 5 plants in adjacent Jackson County, Oregon.

Population Size Comments: One occurrence has 39,000 plants. However, numbers at some sites are low.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats mentioned include structures, roads, deer browsing and weedy non-native species such as Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad). The severity of these threats may be quite low, but this is not known for sure. The USFWS (2004) considers dyer's woad to be a high-magnitude threat to this Calochortus, since it is a germination inhibitor and has invaded nearly all of the species' known habitat. However, the USFWS considers this threat to be of low immediacy, since dyer's woad generally spreads only following disturbance, and most sites are not frequently disturbed and currently have relatively little dyer's woad in the actual areas of Calochortus occurrence. Also, new information and understanding in 2006 indicates Dyer's woad may be less of a threat than originally thought (Knight, pers com.). It occurs on south slopes rather than the north slopes Calochortus persistens grows on and infests perhaps 1% of the area of CAPE. It's ecological impact is not well understood. The management options and their potential impact are also largely unstudied. The single, disjunct site in nearby Oregon is threatened by fire and trampling, and has very low plant numbers. Horticultural collecting of this bulb plant is generally not considered a significant threat to the larger populations, but could severely affect a very small population, such as the disjunct one in Oregon.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Short term trend is possibly stable.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Long term trend is unknown.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Numbers fluctuate year-to-year, and in some years the species does not successfully reproduce (USFWS 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: On metavolcanic soils in one main area in Siskiyou County, California, a region in which such substrates are locally common (although globally uncommon).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: Occurs in Siskiyou County, California and adjacent Oregon on disjunct ridgetops of Klamath-Siskiyou Mountain Range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, OR

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Siskiyou (06093)
OR Jackson (41029)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Middle Rogue (17100308)+, Applegate (17100309)+
18 Upper Klamath (18010206)+, Shasta (18010207)+, Scott (18010208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: Herbaceous perennial herb, arising from a bulb. Large single basal leaf, to 2 dm long, 15-20 mm wide, exceeding the inflorescence. Inflorescence about 5 cm tall, usually with 1-2 flowers about 5 cm across; sepals shorter than petals; petals lavender pink grading to yellow near gland, broad, tapering sharply at base. Gland transverse, yellow, depressed, with an upwardly fringed membrane below. Stamens 6; anthers about equal to filaments. Ovary 3-winged; mature capsule elliptic, nodding and covered by persistent sepals and petals. Blooms June-July.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Open areas of ridgeline rock outcrops and talus within montane shrub plant communities of coniferous forests. Grows on dry, acidic, well drained, rocky soils. 1,310 to 1,847 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Jul2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K., rev. G. Davis 6/02, R. Bittman 2005, L. Morse (2005), rev. R. Bittman (2006), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Fiedler, P.L. 1996. Rare Lilies of California. California Native Plant Society Press, Sacramento, California. 154 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Calochortus persistens. 12 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Review of species that are candidates or proposed for listing as endangered or threatened; Annual notice of finding on recycled petitions; Annual description of progress on listing actions. Federal Register Vol. 67, No. 114 (June 13). pp. 40657-40679.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2015. 12-Month Findings on Petitions To List 19 Species as Endangered or Threatened Species. Federal Register 80(195): 60834-60850.

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