Callophrys polios - (Cook and Watson, 1907)
Hoary Elfin
Other English Common Names: hoary elfin
Synonym(s): Callophrys (Incisalia) polia (Cook and Watson, 1907) ;Incisalia polia (Cook and Watson, 1907) ;Incisalia polios
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Callophrys polios (Cook and F. Watson, 1907) (TSN 777850)
French Common Names: lutin grisātre
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.110671
Element Code: IILEPE2210
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Lycaenidae Callophrys
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Callophrys polios
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 01Sep1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread and rather common in parts of Canada such as Manitoba, many local populations in north and west but declining in some parts of east. In particular EPIGAEA feeding populations are greatly reduced in the USA.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (01Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (10Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (S4), Connecticut (SX), Idaho (S4), Indiana (S1), Maine (S4), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (S3), Michigan (S3S4), Minnesota (S4S5), Montana (S5), New Hampshire (SH), New Jersey (S3), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SH), Rhode Island (S1), South Dakota (SNR), Utah (SNR), Virginia (S1S3), Washington (S3), West Virginia (SH), Wisconsin (S4), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S3), Northwest Territories (S4S5), Nova Scotia (S4), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S1), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: E. Alaska, Mackenzie River drainage south to Washington. In Rocky Mountains to New Mexico, however wtih some signifcant gaps. Also, east to Nova Scotia and south very discontinuously to New Jersey.

Area of Occupancy: 501 to >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Declining significantly in eastern part of range, at least the US portion, but so far as known stable westward.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) E. Alaska, Mackenzie River drainage south to Washington. In Rocky Mountains to New Mexico, however wtih some signifcant gaps. Also, east to Nova Scotia and south very discontinuously to New Jersey.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, CO, CTextirpated, ID, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OR, PA, RI, SD, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Porter (18127)
NJ Burlington (34005), Middlesex (34023)*, Monmouth (34025)*, Ocean (34029)
OR Curry (41015), Lincoln (41041)
PA Bucks (42017)*, Chester (42029)*, Monroe (42089)*, Montgomery (42091)*, York (42133)*
RI Kent (44003), Washington (44009)
VA Roanoke (51161)*, Salem (City) (51775)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+
02 Raritan (02030105)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+
17 Alsea (17100205)+, Chetco (17100312)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Lycaenidae.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Mostly rocky or sandy barrens, bogs, outcrops etc. with abundant bearberry. Also in dry rocky forest with EPIGAEA REPENS in at least New Brunswick, Pennyslvania and Virginia.
Adult Food Habits: Nectarivore
Food Comments: Caterpillar Hosts: Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) in the heath family (Ericaceae); probably trailing arbutus (Epigaea repens). Adult Food: Nectar from flowers including leatherleaf, pyxie, wild strawberry, and willow (Lotts and Naberhaus 2017).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Callophrys in part (Green Hairstreaks, Elfins, etc.)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or has occurred with potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally suitable habitat with foodplants where presence is verified by a specimen or photograph. High quality EOs may be metapopulations.
Mapping Guidance: For some species such as C. MOSSI each patch of the foodplant may need to be mapped. For many plant community boundaries can be useful in defining EOs. For all of them the EO is no larger than the community supporting the foodplant patches. Consult the habitat and food comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences.
If habitats occur within an discrete community matrix such as within chaparral or pine barrens communities, all occurrences within the community should be regarded as one metapopulation EO. In many cases the plant community boundaries can be used for mapping it. Likewise in many cases all colonies in a given canyon or on a ridgeline would be one EO.
Note that for open habitat species forested patches are not habitat even if the foodplant occurs, while a few such as most redbud, holly, and RHAMNUS feeding populations of C. HENRICI do not make much use of open areas.

Separation Barriers: For most species urbanized or very open environments with no trees, shrubs, or foodplants are probably barriers. For most of the open habitat species forests may be barriers although it is not known if the adults simply fly over them. Brushy habitats and small expanses of shaded residential area do not normally constitute barriers to forest or woodland species.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Good data are few and habitat patch size varies enormously for the various species and with geography. Arnold (1983) working with remnant colonies of the Endangered C. MOSSI BAYENSIS documented maximum movements of only about 250 meters and says that colonies of the species occupy only up to 25 hectares. However this is an endangered taxon and this relictual colony may well have lost any dispersal tendencies. On the other hand D. Schweitzer has found single colonies of C. HENRICI in New Jersey often occupy 50-500 hectares and some of those would be best treated as merely demes in larger metapopulations. Some populations of C. AUGUSTINUS in that state appear to occupy more than 5000 hectares and certainly some populations of C. NIPHON occupy far larger areas than that. In general adults, at least females, probably move freely throughout habitat patches whatever their size but seldom leave them. An exception seems to be C. NIPHON at least in southern New Jersey where Schweitzer has collected larvae at three sites where he has never seen adults and that do not appear to be suitable adult habitat, one of them a single isolated roadside pine. Also in New Jersey has collected a female C. POLIOS more than 10 km from any known foodplant and isolated hollies sometimes have a few C. henrici larvae. Females of these species must disperse rather widely. Males of all species occupy definite perching areas (sometimes loosely called lekking areas), and for some species (HENRICI, IRUS) these may be much more restricted than where females lay eggs and thus adults eclose. Thus by casual observation the occurrence can appear far more localized than it really is. In New Jersey C. HENRICI seems much more localized at peak season than it does later when females wander widely through the forests. C. NIPHON is a notoriously good colonizer of planted pines. Despite all of this, observations of individuals even 100 meters out of at least marginal habitat are rare and so short separation distances seem warranted across unsuitable habitats, even though these should not preclude some gene flow. Species such as C. NIPHON, HENRICI, POLIOS, and AUGUSTINUS do seem to routinely occupy all suitable habitat even where it is extensive. In fact in some areas where pines are the dominant trees for many kilometers, occurrences of C. NIPHON are virtually indefinable. Thus it is reasonable to assume that observations 10 kilometers apart separated by largely suitable habitat do represent one occurrence for at least most species.
Since at least most species do colonize small scraps of habitat within a few kilometers of established colonies, C. IRUS most consistently so (Schweitzer), the ten kilometer distance should be used when major occurrences are separated by an intervening landscapes containing many patches of foodplant in at least marginal habitat with no gaps of more than two kilometers. Adults probably also recognize gross vegetation features such as forest, grassland or brushland and obviously inappropriate situations (e.g. open fields for C. HENRICI, dense swamps for most or all others) should be treated as unsuitable.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: This applies only in suitable habitats. The figure is arbitrary. In practice few habitats are that large, and in such cases inferred extent is the entire habitat At least species such as NIPHON, AUGUSTINUS, POLIOS and HENRICI which often occupy large habitats usually occupy all available habitat where they occur. For these species occurrences in this range (ca. 1000 hectares) are not unusual, although all of them also have occurrences of only a few hectares. C. IRUS and probably C. MOSSI occur in smaller patches but these are usually clustered and typically nearly all occupied and some metapopulations of the former occupy more than 1000 hectares (at least in New Jersey and New York). Still there are sufficient unknowns that occurrence over a large area should not be assumed on the basis of one observation,
Date: 19Jul2001
Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14May2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Opler, P.A.; Schwitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14May2001

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, T.J. 1997. The butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. Pittsburgh, PA. University of Pittsburgh Press.

  • Belth, Jeffrey E. 2013. Butterflies of Indiana A Field Guide. Indiana University Press.Bloomington, IN.

  • Brock, J. P., and K. Kaufman. 2003. Butterflies of North America. Kaufman Focus Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, NY 284 pp.

  • Ferris, Clifford and F. M. Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 442 pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba butterfly species list and subnational ranks proposed by Environment Canada contractor.

  • Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies through binoculars: A field guide to butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington region. Oxford University Press: New York. 160 pp.

  • Guppy, C.S., and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia. UBC Press in collaboration with Royal B.C. Mus. 414pp.

  • Huber, R. L. 1981. An updated checklist of Minnesota butterflies. Minnesota Entomological Association Newsletter 14(3):15-25.

  • Iftner, David C. and Wright, David M., 1996. Atlas of New Jersey Butterflies. Privately published by authors.

  • Klassen,P.,Westwood, A.R., Preston. W.B. and W.B. McKillop. 1989. The butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. Winnipeg. 290 pp.

  • Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada. 280 pp. + color plates.

  • Lotts, K., and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2017. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Available online: http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version December 2018).

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • O'Donnell, J.E., L.F. Gall., and D.L. Wagner, eds. 2007. The Connecticut Butterfly Atlas. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford. 376 pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R., J. Landry, B. C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.J. Van Neiukerken, J.R. DeWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari, and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated Checklist of the Moth and Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. Bulgaria. 580 pp.

  • Schweitzer, Dale. January 1997. Annotations to Special Invertebrate Animals of New Jersey, December 1996; sent to Rick Dutko of the NJ Natural Heritage Program.

  • Shapiro, A.M. 1974. Butterflies and skippers of New York State. Search 4:1-60.

  • Shuey, John. 1995. Indiana S-Ranks for Butterflies. Memorandum to Cloyce Hedge. 10 pp.

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