Callitriche stagnalis - Scop.
Pond Water-starwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Callitriche stagnalis Scop. (TSN 32062)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128613
Element Code: PDCLL010A0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Callitrichales Callitrichaceae Callitriche
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Callitriche stagnalis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (11Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Montana (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
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NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, CTexotic, DEexotic, MA, MDexotic, MTexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, VAexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic
Canada BCexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: This aquatic plant forms locally dense mats of vegetation that may crowd out native aquatic vegetation in slow-moving or still waters. It is found in 13 mostly coastal states in the US. It's spreading slowly in the US, but not much is known about controlling this species.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 18Jan2004
Evaluator: Lu, S.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Callitriche stagnalis is native to both Europe and North Africa, where it is widespread in aquatic and subaquatic habitats (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a). Native also to New Zealand (FNZAS, not dated).

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is a non-native that is established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Callitriche stagnalis occurs in natural areas in Connecticut and New Jersey (PCA 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Moderate significance
Comments: It forms locally dense mats of vegetation that may crowd out native aquatic vegetation. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a)

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Moderate significance
Comments: It forms locally dense mats of vegetation that may crowd out native aquatic vegetation. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a)

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Established in 13 mostly coastal states - California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. (Kartesz 1999). In the U.S., Callitriche stagnalis is found in all of the mid Atlantic states, Virginia, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Montana and along the West coast. In New England it has been reported in Massachusetts and Connecticut. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a)

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance
Comments: Invasive in Connecticut and New Jersey (PCA 2003; Heffner, not dated); potentially invasive in Massachusetts (MDC 2003); not invasive in Seattle, WA (Seattle DPR 2002) or Delaware (DNPS, not dated).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Medium/Low significance
Comments: At least in 3 TNC ecoregion, and at most in 34 ecoregions (Inference using data from Kartesz 1999 and TNC Ecoregion 2001 map). This aquatic plant is established in ___ 4-byte HUCs.

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Rivers and wetlands (Mehrhoff et al. 2003b). Callitriche stagnalis is found in non-moving to slowly moving water, mostly in ponds, marshes and along the protected banks of streams and lakes. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a). In its native range in the UK, it is found in still to fast flow, in brackish water, in ponds and streams, and in clay, peat, or silt substrates (Merritt 1994).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Low significance
Comments: In general, the number of herbarium specimens for Callitriche stagnalis has shown a gradual increase over the last century, indicating that it may have spread more slowly than some other notable invasive aquatic plants, or it has been somewhat overlooked by collectors.
The earliest record of Callitriche stagnalis in North America comes from New York in 1861 as it established near seaports. Callitriche stagnalis became a popular aquarium plant before the end of the nineteenth century. This may help to explain some of its subsequent non-coastal populations (for example - Montana, first specimen in 1898). It is likely that aquarium disposal contributed to its accidental dispersal.
The earliest record of Callitriche stagnalis in New England comes from Cape Cod (Barnstable county, Massachusetts) in 1911. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a)


11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: The temperature range this species tolerates in New Zealand is 10-16 degrees C (FNZAS, not dated).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Besides plant fragmentation, seeds probably constitute its major mode of dispersal. Callitriche stagnalis is appears to be capable of self pollination, possibly making its spread by seed even easier. Bird dispersal, either by seed ingestion or by attachment to feathers is also possible. Vehicular dispersal, caused when mud with seeds in it gets stuck to boats and tires, may also be important. It is likely that aquarium disposal contributed to its dispersal. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a)

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Unknown

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Moderate significance
Comments: This species is dispersed into new areas by plant fragmentation, bird dispersal, either by seed ingestion or by attachment to feathers, vehicular dispersal when mud with seeds in it gets stuck to boats and tires, and aquarium disposal. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a) Disturbance in aquatic habitats is not required for this plant to establish in new areas.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: Also established in Canada (Kartesz 1999). It inhabits riparian vegetation, freshwater wetlands, warm and cool temperate rainforests in Victoria, Australia (Australia DEH 2004). In its native range in New Zealand, it inhabits stream margins, can be found creeping over mud, and may be found almost anywhere moisture is found (FNZAS, not dated).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: Callitriche stagnalis reproduces by clonal spread and by prolific seed production. Callitriche stagnalis is monecious. It is capable of dispersing by way of plant fragments but the extent of its dispersal by plant fragmentation is not known. (Mehrhoff et al. 2003a) Reproduction occurs from stem fragments (Australia DEH 2004).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Unknown

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Australian Government, Department of Environment and Heritage. 2004, January 22, 2004 - last update. Potentially environmental weeds in Australia - appendix C - potential environmental weed species that have histories as weeds overseas but are too widespread to be eradicated from Australia. Available: http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/potential/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Delaware Native Plant Society. No date. Exotic and invasive plants of Delaware. Available: http://www.delawarenativeplants.org/dnps-introexoticinvasives.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Heffner, R. No date. Invasive plants: if you're not part of the solution, you may be part of the problem. Pondkeeper Magazine. Available: http://www.pondkeeper.com/articlepdf/invasiveplants.pdf. (Accessed 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Massachusetts Metropolitan District Commission. 2003. Alewife reservation & alewife brook master plan - appendix B - plant lists. Available: http://www.state.ma.us/mdc/alewifemasterplan.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Mehrhoff, L.J., J.A. Silander, Jr., S.A. Leicht and E. Mosher. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Online. Available: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/.

  • Mehrhoff, L.J., K.J. Metzler, and E.E. Corrigan. 2003b. Non-native invasive and potentially invasive vascular plants in Connecticut. Center for Conservation and Biodiversity, University of Connecticut, Storrs. Available: http://dep.state.ct.us/cgnhs/invasive/PlantSpecBro03.pdf. (Accessed 2004).

  • Merritt, A. 1994. Wetlands, industry & wildlife: a manual of principles and practices. The Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust: Slimbridge, Gloucester. Available: http://212.187.155.84/wnv/Subdirectories_for_Search/Glossary&References_Contents/BooksContents/BookRef93WetlandsIndustry&Wildlife/Contents.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Parsons, P., V. Stead, and L. Trigg. No date. Federation of New Zealand Aquatic Societies plant survey. Federation of New Zealand Aquatic Societies Inc. Available: http://www.fnzas.org.nz/index.php?261. (Accessed 2004).

  • Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA). 2003. Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Last updated 4 September 2003. Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/all.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation. 2002. Lincoln Park vegetation management plan. Available: http://www.cityofseattle.net/parks/parkspaces/LincolnPark/VMP/AppendB.pdf. (Accessed 2004).

  • U.S. Forest Service Eastern Region. 2004, 06 January 2004 - last update. Section 3b: Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/range/weed/index.php?open=Sec3B.htm. (Accessed 2004).

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