Callirhoe bushii - Fern.
Bush's Poppy-mallow
Synonym(s): Callirhoe papaver var. bushii (Fern.) Waterfall
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Callirhoe bushii Fern. (TSN 21783)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.161637
Element Code: PDMAL0A020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mallow Family
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Malvales Malvaceae Callirhoe
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Callirhoe bushii
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Jan1998
Global Status Last Changed: 28Jan1998
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Taxonomy now clarified (Dorr 1990); 49 post-1970 occurrences known from 4 states.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S3), Iowa (SU), Kansas (S1), Missouri (S2), Oklahoma (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Callirhoe bushii has a limited range, occurring only in southwestern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and northwestern Arkansas. Populations have been introduced along highways in Iowa (Wilson 1992) and railroad rights-of-way in northwest Missouri (Ladd 1993).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Arkansas (5 post-1970 occurrences); Kansas (5 post-1970); Missouri (16 post-1970); Oklahoma (13 post-1970).

Population Size Comments: The largest populations have 100's of plants, however, populations commonly have <50 individuals.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Development of C. bushii habitat is a serious threat throughout its range. The habitat existing on land around small towns is being urbanized as it is cleared for homes, buildings, and recreational developments, especially in areas of heavy tourism (Kral 1983).

The loss of habitat due to forest land conversion to grazing pastures is also a significant problem (Kral 1983, Tucker 1983). Forest clearing projects can be detrimental if excessive physical disturbance occurs to the substrate and vegetation. Although C. bushii can withstand and actually benefit from some limited level of disturbance, excessive grazing pressure is likely detrimental to the species. In mesic habitats, conversion of hay meadows to cropland is a significant threat (Freeman 1992). Much of this type of historic habitat has already been destroyed by this activity.

Many populations in both Missouri and Arkansas were believed to have been lost as a result of the construction of Bull Shoals, Taneycomo, and Table Rock Reservoirs by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. These projects were located in the drainage basin of the White River and flooded considerable amounts of the wooded valleys and ravine bottoms which were the most suitable habitat for this species (Kral 1983, Tucker 1983).

In Arkansas, one large population consisting of several hundred plants was destroyed by a highway widening project. This population had previously been scattered over approximately one acre of ground along the edge of the highway (Tucker 1983).

Loss of the natural fire regime is the greatest current threat to the species as a whole (Richards 1993). The encroachment of woody vegetation into occupied habitat can change the amount of available sunlight and moisture, making sites less suitable for populations (Freeman 1992). Although C. bushii populations persist in mid-successional habitats (moderately open woodlands and edges of glades), complete canopy closure is believed to eliminate this species from the open woodlands (Summers 1993, Morgan 1984, Wallace 1984, Morgan 1980).

Direct herbicide application and drift from spraying may play a role in the decline of populations. Although spraying has not been documented in the destruction of populations of C. bushii in Kansas (Freeman 1992), it is perceived as a real threat in Missouri (Chaplin 1993, Wallace 1984). Herbicide spraying in Missouri has led to some problems in the conservation of this species, particularly for populations located along railroad and highway rights-of-way (Chaplin 1993).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Current trends within C. bushii are unknown. Significant declines in the species came with habitat destruction following Euro-American settlement. Continued declines through habitat loss, primarily by succession in the absence of fires, have undoubtedly occurred in recent years.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Populations decrease with encroachment of trees and shrubs into habitat but do well in artificial habitats including railroad and highway rights-of-way.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: Callirhoe bushii has a limited range, occurring only in southwestern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and northwestern Arkansas. Populations have been introduced along highways in Iowa (Wilson 1992) and railroad rights-of-way in northwest Missouri (Ladd 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, IA, KS, MO, OK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Arkansas (05001)*, Benton (05007), Boone (05009), Carroll (05015), Logan (05083)*, Marion (05089), Newton (05101), Pope (05115), Pulaski (05119), Van Buren (05141), Washington (05143)
IA Page (19145)
KS Bourbon (20011), Neosho (20133)
MO Barry (29009), Benton (29015), Carroll (29033)*, Greene (29077)*, Jasper (29097)*, McDonald (29119), Ozark (29153)*, Pettis (29159)*, Pulaski (29169)*, Saline (29195)*, Stone (29209), Taney (29213), Texas (29215)*
OK Adair (40001)*, Atoka (40005)*, Bryan (40013)*, Cherokee (40021), Choctaw (40023)*, Mayes (40097)*, McCurtain (40089), Osage (40113)*, Rogers (40131)*, Sequoyah (40135)*, Tulsa (40143)*, Washington (40147)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
08 Bayou Meto (08020402)+*
10 Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Marmaton (10290104)+, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109)+, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+*, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+*, Lamine (10300103)+*, Blackwater (10300104)+*
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, James (11010002)+*, Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+, Buffalo (11010005)+, Little Red (11010014)+, Lower Verdigris (11070105)+*, Caney (11070106)+*, Bird (11070107)+*, Middle Neosho (11070205)+, Spring (11070207)+*, Elk (11070208)+, Lower Neosho (11070209)+*, Illinois (11110103)+, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+*, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+*, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203)+, Bois D'arc-Island (11140101)+*, Blue (11140102)+*, Clear Boggy (11140104)+*, Kiamichi (11140105)+*, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+*, Upper Little (11140107)+*, Mountain Fork (11140108)+, Lower Little (11140109)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: Herbaceous perennial; thick taproot; stems multiple, with spreading hairs throughout; leaves broader than long, deeply cleft with oblong, coarsely toothed segments; flowers rose-purple with subtending bractlets that are separated from the calyx by 1-3mm.
General Description: Callirhoe bushii is an herbaceous perennial with several more or less erect stems, 5-14 dm in height. Stems may recline with tips ascending. The plant may vary from being nearly smooth to having long, soft, straight hairs and small, flattened, star-shaped hairs. Leaves are alternate, ovate in outline, 5-13 cm broad, slightly longer than broad, and deeply palmately lobed into 5-7 oblong segments. Leaves of the upper stem often with fewer lobes and not as deeply lobed as those of the lower stem. Leaf margins without teeth, or slightly toothed. The flowers are perfect and solitary on long stems, 6-7 cm broad, with 5 wedge-shaped petals, 3.0-3.5 cm long, ranging in color from red to purple. The fruit is a ring of about 20 dry carpels, each resembling a section of an orange. (Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Morgan 1984, Kral 1983, Tucker 1983, Morgan 1980).
Technical Description: "A herbaceous perennial, with usually erect or ascending, sometimes more or less decumbent branches; herbage with varying amounts of pilose spreading hairs, sometimes nearly glabrous; cauline leaf blades usually broader than long (some selected measurements of length and width: 4 cm. and 5 cm., 5 cm. and 6 cm., 7 cm. and 9 cm., 9 cm. and 12 cm.), usually deeply lobed into ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate-falcate, oblong or linear-oblong divisions which are often entire but may be sparsely toothed; upper leaves often less deeply lobed than the lower ones, in Oklahoma material sometimes only 3-lobed with the sinuses extending only about halfway into the blade, to deeply and irregularly toothed or incised rather than lobed; calyx of 5 lobes, 15-25 mm. long, united at the base for one-fifth to one-fourth the length of the calyx; at least 1 or 2 of the involucral bractlets at 1-3 mm. from the calyx; flowers single; peduncle hirsute, stellate-puberulent, 7- 11 cm. long; corolla of 5 petals, reddish-purple, truncate at apex, about 3-6 cm. wide; ovary of 10 to 20 carpels; carpels rounded to short-beaked; stamens many, filaments fused in column around styles; fruit of separate carpels, each carpel single-seeded, an indehiscent or eventually dehiscent capsule." (Zanoni, et al. 1979).
Diagnostic Characteristics: The stems of Callirhoe bushii are mainly ascending or erect, its main leaf-divisions entire or with few teeth, and at least one of the bractlets are slightly separated by 1-3mm from the calyx, whereas the stems of C. involucrata are mostly horizontally spreading or reclining with ascending tips, its main leaf-divisions deeply cut or toothed, and the 3 bractlets remain close to the 5-lobed calyx and are not noticeably separated from it (Steyermark 1963).

The hairs on the stems of C. bushii are spreading away from the stem or pointing toward the base unlike C. papaver, in which the hairs on the stems are pressed closely or lying parallel to surface of stem (Steyermark 1963). C. bushii can be further distinguished from C. papaver by its broader leaf segments which are few-toothed near the apex (Kral 1983).

Ecology Comments: Open rocky woodlands, edges of glades and barrens, upland tallgrass prairies, railroad and higway rights-of-way, and ravine bottoms. The substrate is usually calcareous, and the soil is typically deeper than that found on glades or barrens.

Callirhoe bushii occurs in the south-central Midwest which has relatively warm summers and mild winters. The warm climate is due to humid air from the Gulf of Mexico, which covers the area at frequent intervals throughout the year. The growing season of the south-central Midwest lasts approximately 200 days over most of the range of this species. Precipitation averages about 45 inches during the entire year, with a dry season occurring in the winter (Tucker 1983).

This species appears to be favored in habitats supporting vegetation in the early stages of succession and is tolerant of limited disturbance. Factors that may contribute to these conditions (such as fire) may favor and aid this species. The plant has a large taproot indicating that the species is likely adapted to long-term survival by offering resistance to damage by insects, grazers and fire. This is similar to that of many prairie species adapted to fire and drought (Tucker 1983).

Callirhoe bushii can thrive in either the full sun or in partial shade of open woods but has never been observed in closed canopy areas. Populations typically consist of scattered mature individuals, each composed of numerous stems several years of age. In some sites it is widely scattered, with individual plants spaced up to one meter or more apart. All of the populations visited by Tucker (1983) showed evidence of poor seedling establishment. This population structure suggests that there is high survivorship in the mature plants, with seedlings showing high mortality and poor establishment rates (Tucker 1983). Populations appear to be extremely stable with little fluctuation in numbers on a year-to-year basis.

Callirhoe bushii blooms over a long period of time, from May to August. Generally a few flowers will open on the plant at a time, with no more than 1-2 flowers opening at once. This continued flower production occurs for approximately one month per plant, while the population as a whole will flower for several months. The plants probably begin flowering during their second year of growth. The fruit matures several weeks after flowering, with mature fruits being observed as early as July (Tucker 1983, Morgan 1980).

The species is only known to reproduce via seed. Seed dispersal occurs when the ring of carpels separates into individual units, splits open and scatters the seeds. Most of the seeds are thought to accumulate under parent plants, although the potential for wind dispersal also exists (Tucker 1983). Fruiting dates are June to September (Morgan 1980).

The pollination system of this species is unknown, but may be assumed to involve a variety of different insects. Many members of the genus are cross-pollinated by insects. There have been observations of both bees and flies visiting C. bushii plants, although it is unknown if they play a role in pollination (Tucker 1983).

Habitat Comments: Callirhoe bushii is found in open rocky woodlands, edges of glades and barrens, upland tallgrass prairies, railroad and highway rights-of-way and ravine bottoms. The substrate is usually calcareous, and the soil is typically deeper than that found on glades or barrens (Summers 1993, Smith 1992, Morgan 1984, Wallace 1984, Kral 1983, Morgan 1980). The tuberous rootstalks of individual plants are usually rooted in clay (Kral 1983). This species often occurs in habitats that are sparse in shrub and other woody vegetation cover. Although this species is sometimes found in shaded areas, the preferred habitat is usually open (Summers 1993, Morgan 1984, Wallace 1984, Tucker 1983, Morgan 1980).

Typical overstory plant associates are those characteristic of Ozarkian uplands and include Acer saccharum, Carya glabra, C. ovalis, C. texana, C. tomentosa, Celtis spp., Fraxinus americana, Juniperus virginiana, Quercus alba, Q. imbricaria, Q. macrocarpa, Q. marilandica, Q. muehlenbergii, Q. prinoides, Q. rubra, Q. stellata, Q. velutina, Sassafras albidum, Ulmus alata, U. americana and U. rubra (Kral 1983, Tucker 1983). Understory plant associates include Andrachne spp., Cornus spp., Hypericum spp., Rhamnus caroliniana, Rhus aromatica, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Kral 1983, Tucker 1983). Herbaceous plant associates are numerous and include Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Arenaria spp., Aster spp., Delphinium spp., Euphorbia spp., Festuca spp., Oenothera spp., Onosmodium spp., Panicum spp., Phleum spp., Poa spp., Satureja spp., Sedum spp., Solanum carolinense, Talinum spp. and Trifolium spp. (Kral 1983, Tucker 1983). Callirhoe bushii is currently found associated with a number of weedy plants with which it was not known to be associated in the recent past (Tucker 1983).

In Arkansas, C. bushii is found in rocky open woods, along the borders of limestone glades, roadsides and fence rows (Hyatt 1993, Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission 1992). It has been found at an elevation of 300-390 m. Associated plant species include Allium canadensis, Daucus carota, Delphinium treleasei, Echinacea pallida, Festuca spp., Helianthus hirsutus, Melilotus officinalis, Pallida spp., Silphium terebinthinaceum, Torilis arvensis, Tradescantia ohiensis and Juniperus virginiana (Hyatt 1993, Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission 1992).

In Kansas, the single confirmed extant occurrence is from mesic, upland tallgrass prairie interspersed with shrubby vegetation (Freeman 1992). Associated plant species include Andropogon gerardii, A. scoparius, Asclepias tuberosa, A. viridis, Dichanthelium oligosanthes var. scribnerianum, Erigeron strigosus, Rudbeckia hirta, Silphium laciniatum and Sorghastrum nutans (Freeman 1992b, Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory 1992). Historic and unconfirmed populations were reported from rocky roadside banks and railroad rights-of-way, at the edges of pastures and in roadside ditches (Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory 1992).

In Missouri, C. bushii grows in habitats that are intermediate between glades and forests (cedar glades and oak-hickory forests) (Morgan 1980). Specific habitats include the borders of calcareous glades (dolomite), railroad and highway rights-of-way, juniper/hardwood woodlands, rocky open woods, ravine bottoms and old fields (Chaplin 1993, Summers 1993, Missouri Natural Heritage Inventory 1992, Morgan 1984, Morgan 1980, Roedner et al. 1978, Steyermark 1963). Associated plant species include Ampelopsis cordata, Callirhoe digitalis, Campanula americana, Campsis radicans, Cassia sp., Clematis virginiana, Melilotus alba, Polymnia canadensis, Rhus radicans, Rudbeckia triloba, Smilax sp. and Verbesina helianthoides (Smith 1992, Morgan 1980).

In Oklahoma, C. bushii habitat includes open woods, lowland, floodplains, wet prairie and shaded creek banks. Soils are typically loam, sandy loam or alluvium (Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory 1993, Waterfall 1959).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary
Stewardship Overview: Prescribed burning, controlled mowing and selective thinning of trees and shrubs should be used to control succession of woody plants and maintain open habitat. Monitoring of populations should be used to track specific management concerns.
Restoration Potential: Propagation of plants by seeds and stem cuttings appears to be possible as in other species of Callirhoe. Cuttings of other species in this genus can be rooted easily in perlite and/or vermiculite in greenhouses. Many of the other species of the perennial Callirhoe can be started easily from seeds (Tucker 1983). Introduction of these propagated individuals into wild populations may be useful in expanding the number of sites or enhancing the existing populations.

Transplanting mature plants from one site to another may be difficult. In other Callirhoe species (C. digitata and C. alcaeoides) the large taproot is easily removed from the ground but most of the smaller feeder roots become detached. With these feeder roots detached, transplanting is extremely difficult (Tucker 1983).

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserve designs should be of sufficient size to maintain a mosaic of early to mid-successional habitats that sustain populations. This will enable C. bushii to occupy more than one suitable habitat area within the preserve, reducing the risk of an isolated natural disaster destroying the entire population. The diversity of habitat may also maintain a greater diversity of insect pollinators.

Designs should also account for prescribed burn programs necessary to maintain early-successional habitat. Preserves should be large enough to conduct a rotational fire management program through a mosaic of habitats. Additionally, sufficient buffer is required to allow safe burning practices and reduce risks from smoke drift.

Management Requirements: Prescribed burning of habitat should be exercised to control successional woody plants. Occupied habitats were naturally maintained by fire and it was a necessary abiotic component of the ecosystem. Callirhoe bushii is well adapted to withstand fire due to its large, carrot-like taproot. Frequent fires likely play an important role in the maintenance and expansion of populations (Tucker 1983).

In the absence of prescribed fire, limited mowing of the areas may be exercised along with selective hand-cutting of trees and shrubs (Wallace 1984). Removal of encroaching canopy trees in these areas will maintain high light levels, enabling populations to persist and expand in open woods (Wallace 1984).

If mowing is used as a tool, it should only be conducted in the fall and early spring (after October 1 and before May 1). Vegetation should be mowed to no less than six inches high in the fall and eight inches in the spring. In the following two years, mowing should not be repeated (Wallace 1984).

The spraying of herbicides in areas occupied by C. bushii should be eliminated (Wallace 1984). Additionally, insecticide spraying should be curtailed to allow for healthy populations of insect pollinators.

Monitoring Requirements: Monitoring programs should include regular visits to extant populations to track their status with respect to on-going management regimes. Population size (number of individuals), flower/seed production and recruitment should be tracked.

Habitat monitoring should also be included in order to track its condition over time. This effort should include the tracking of canopy closure and possibly, community composition via plot sampling.

Management Programs: The Missouri Field Office of The Nature Conservancy contracted the completion of a management plan for the Hollister Railroad site in Taney County (Wallace 1984). The site contains one of the larger C. bushii populations in the state. The plan calls for the elimination of herbicide application at the site and the initiation of selective cutting of trees and shrubs.

Contact: Doug Ladd, Director of Science and Stewardship, The Nature Conservancy, Missouri Field Office, 2800 South Brentwood Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63144. Telephone: (314) 968-1105.

Monitoring Programs: No on-going monitoring program is known to be in effect for this species.
Management Research Programs: No known management research program is in effect for this species.
Management Research Needs: Management research needs should focus on learning more about the habitat dynamics and population ecology. Research relating to the successional needs of this species and its response to mowing, fires and drought would be extremely helpful in devising a management program.

Research is also needed to understand the population structure relating to the establishment of seedlings and growth of juvenile plants.

Additional topics: Emery (1956) determined in his preliminary findings that the genus Callirhoe was composed of a polyploid series with a base number n=7. Callirhoe bushii is known only as a tetraploid, n=28 (Bates et al. 1989).

The species name was given in honor of its discoverer, Benjamin Franklin Bush, 1858-1937 (Fernald 1970). This species was first described by Robinson and Fernald in 1909. It was then considered a distinct species, distinguished from Callirhoe papaver by its heavier pubescence on the stems, broader leaves and broader involucral bracts. In 1938, Martin moved this taxon to variety status, C. involucrata var. bushii, because the unique floral characteristics were not apparent. In 1951, U. T. Waterfall described C. papaver var. bushii and noted that the involucral bracts were inserted at least 1-3 mm below the calyx in both C. papaver var. bushii and C. bushii, thus making them synonyms (Morgan 1980, Martin 1938). Recent cytological and morphological analyses suggests that C. bushii is a full species (Dorr 1990).

Additional common names for this species include poppy mallow and Bush's woods poppy-mallow (Kral 1983). Taxonomic synonyms include Callirhoe papaver var. bushii (Fern.) Waterfall and C. involucrata var. bushii (Fernald) R. F. Martin.

Illustrations of C. bushii can be found in the following sources: Gleason (1952), Steyermark (1963), Roedner et al. (1978), Morgan (1980, 1984) and Tucker (1983).

Range distribution maps of the species can be found in the following sources: Arkansas (Smith 1988), Missouri (Morgan 1984, Morgan 1980, Steyermark 1963), United States (Wallace 1984, Kral 1983, Tucker 1983).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Feb1994
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ostlie, W. R. (MRO) 1994; revisions by S.L.Neid (MSO) 1998
Management Information Edition Date: 03Feb1994
Management Information Acknowledgments: We are indebted to all the botanists, ecologists, information managers and others who took the time to provide the information necessary for the preparation of this and many other Element Stewardship Abstracts.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Feb1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): AMBROSE, DONN M.; OSTLIE, WAYNE R.; PENSKAR, MICHAEL R.; SCHUEN, DAVID WALTER ??

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Bates, D.M., L.J. Dorr, and O.J. Blanchard, Jr. 1989. Chromosome numbers in CALLIRHOE (Malvaceae). Brittonia 41(2):143-151.

  • Dorr, L.J. 1990a. A revision of the North American genus Callirhoe (Malvaceae). Rhodora 58: 100-102.

  • Dorr, L.J. 1990b. A revision of the North American genus Callirhoe. Memoirs New York Botanical Garden 56: 1-74.

  • Emery, W.H.P. 1956. Some chromosome numbers in the genus CALLIRHOE (Malvaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 56:1-76.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1993. Species distribution data for vascular plants of 70 geographical areas, from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, July, 1993.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983b. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South; II: Aquifoliaceae through Asteraceae. USDA Forest Service, Technical Publication R8-TP 2. pp. 736-740.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Martin, R.F. 1938. Miscellaneous notes on United States plants. Rhodora 40:459-461.

  • Morgan, S. W. 1984. Select, Rare and Endangered Plants of Missouri. Conservation Commission of the State of Missouri, Jefferson City, Missouri. 28 pp.

  • Morgan, S.W. 1980. Status report on Callirhoe papaver (Cav.) Gray var. bushii (Fern.)Waterfall. Unpublished report to the Missouri Department of Conservation. 19pp.

  • Morse, L. 1980. Memo on Bidens bidentoides, 1 October 1980.

  • Roedner, B.J., D.A. Hamilton, and K.E. Evans. 1978. Rare plants of the Ozark Plateau: A field guide. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 238 pp.

  • Smith, E.B. 1988b. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas. Second edition. Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville. 489 pp.

  • Steyermark, J.A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 1728 pp.

  • Taylor, R.J., and C.E.S. Taylor. 1991. An annotated list of the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants of Oklahoma. Southeastern Oklahoma State University, Biology Department, Durant, Oklahoma.

  • Tucker, G.E. 1983. Status report on Callirhoe papaver var. bushii (Fern.) Waterfall. Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. Unpublished report. 41 pp.

  • Wallace, M. 1984. Management of Bush's poppy mallow and royal catchfly at Hollister Railroad. Unpublished report to the Missouri Department of Conservation. 6 pp.

  • Waterfall, U.T. 1959. CALLIRHOE BUSHII (Malvaceae): A variety of C. PAPAVER. Southwestern Nat. 3:215-216.

  • Wilson, B.L. 1992b. Checklist of the vascular flora of Page County, Iowa. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 99(1):23-33.

  • Yatskievych, G. and J. Turner. 1990. Catalogue of the flora of Missouri. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. 345 pp.

  • Zanoni, T.A., J.L. Gentry, Jr., R.J. Tyrl and P.G. Risser. 1979. Endangered and threatened plants of Oklahoma. Univ. of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State Univ., Norman. 64 pp.

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Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:

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